Abruzzi by Luigi Amedeo
(29.01.1873 - 18.03.1933)
Italian Duke, cousin of King Victor Emmanuel III, famous
researcher and mountaineer.
Since childhood, he had two passions: the sea and the mountains.
At the age of six he joined the navy, at 16 he sailed along both
banks of South America.
Then, on a small gunboat, he made long cruises to the Atlantic
and Indian oceans.
Immediately after this, there was a long voyage to the seas of
India and China, to North and South America.
Having been in different seas and countries, with different
climates, having survived terrible storms and dead calms, the
20-year-old youth returned to his homeland as an experienced sailor.
Having survived a lot of hardships, Abruzzi, instead of resting
and relaxing, rushed into the Alps between sea voyages, surrounding
the plain of his native Piedmont with an amphitheater, deciding to
become a first-class climber.
Already at the age of 21, he made ascents to a number of alpine
peaks, before which few obeyed.
It is known that the conquerors of mountain peaks, as a rule,
remain indifferent to the beauty of the sea.
Abruzzi combined the love of both elements.
The first mountaineering achievement of Abruzzi was climbing in
1897 to Mount St. Elias (5488 m) in Alaska.
He performed it with four of his comrades, among whom was
U. Kanyi , and several alpine guides.
he led an expedition to the North Pole on the whaling ship Stella
Polare, which was equipped at the shipyards of
The expedition consisted of 20 people, Italians and Norwegians.
When organizing it, the experience of
F. Nansen was taken as a basis, to which Abruzzi treated with
the deepest respect.
"Stella Polare" off the coast of ZFI.
The expedition chose the Land of Peterman as the base north of
the archipelago Franz Josef Land, from which they were supposed to
try to reach the pole on dogs.
Started on June 12, 1899 from Christiania (Oslo), entered
Arkhangelsk, where they bought 121 dogs and equipment.
In mid-July, they moved to the PHI and reached
in almost pure water.
Unloading part of provisions, fuel and four boats at Cape Flora,
they also passed through the
British Canal to
the northernmost island of the archipelago,
Rudolph , without
any particular problems.
Since Peterman's Land was nowhere to be seen, we decided to start
The ship was placed in
the Teplits Bay in
the west of the island, but the berth was very unfortunate: the bay
was opened from the sea, and the ship soon received serious damage.
In winter Abruzzi himself became very cold and he had to amputate
two fingers on his hand.
He could not participate in the march, and the polar party of
four was headed by Captain U. Kanyi.
To reach the pole failed.
The hardest hike ended in reaching a record for that time mark at
34 ′ N.
The absence of Peterman’s Land, which appeared to
Yu. Payer , was found to be, 12 years later, this was confirmed
by the navigator group
The Abruzzky expedition obtained very significant scientific
materials: data on meteorology, tidal currents, determination of
gravity and elements of terrestrial magnetism, collected zoological
and mineralogical collections.
By the end of the summer of 1900, the polar explorers managed to
repair the vessel, and in September the expedition arrived in
In subsequent years, Abruzzi traveled in Africa and Asia.
In 1906, he explored the Ruwenzori ridge, and later unsuccessfully
tried to conquer the Goodwin Austin peak in the Himalayas.
Abruzzi participated in the Italian-Turkish and the First World
The fleet under his command led successful operations in the
Adriatic Sea, among which stands out a brilliant operation to
evacuate the Serbian army (more than 100 thousand people).
After Mussolini came to power, the royal family went into the
Since 1923, Abruzzi has devoted himself to the development of
agriculture in Somalia.
His efforts built a large agricultural enterprise, which began to
supply Europe with fresh vegetables and fruits.
The most important factor was artificial irrigation, there was a
catastrophic lack of water.
The duke personally planned a system of reservoirs and irrigation
Here he also found personal happiness, having married one of the
To solve the problem of creating a reservoir system, Abruzzi
undertook several research expeditions to the sources of rivers in
the mountainous regions of Ethiopia.
During the last of these, he fell seriously ill.
The doctors did not manage to make the diagnosis.
He died in Somaliland in northern Somalia.
He was buried
on the banks of the river Shebeli.
Abruzzi's notes on his polar expedition and mountain climbing in
Asia have been translated into several foreign languages.
An island (Luigi) in the center of
the Franz Josef Land archipelago.
Opened in 1895 by the expedition of
F. Jackson .
The name given later.
An island (Luigi-Amadeo) in
the Lincoln Sea northeast of the Nansen Land peninsula.
Cape in the southeast of
King William Island in the Ray Strait.
Named in 1903