Anuchin Dmitry Nikolaevich
An outstanding Russian anthropologist, geographer, ethnographer
Born in St. Petersburg in a wealthy large family of a retired
officer, raised to the nobility for merits in the 1812 war.
The Anuchins were the foremost people of their time, were fond of
theater, music, literature, had a good library, wrote newspapers and
Dmitry, the sixth child in the family, learned to read and write
early, knew French and German, was fond of literature, history and
Since childhood, he was distinguished by dedication and
self-discipline, as can be seen from the diaries of high-school
years: “To read books in German and French.
Learn English and Italian ... Read Schiller, Goethe, Shakespeare,
Byron ... Buy a microscope and make various observations ... To be
in the Public Library, the Hermitage, the Rumyantsev Museum ... ".
After graduating from the 4th Larinsky gymnasium in St.
Petersburg in 1860, Anuchin entered the Faculty of History and
Philology of St. Petersburg University, but due to a pulmonary
disease, he left school and went abroad to improve his health.
After spending about two years in Germany, France, Italy, in 1863
he returned to Russia and entered the natural department of the
Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow University.
His favorite subjects were anthropology and ethnography.
After graduation, he worked as a scientific secretary of the
Society for the acclimatization of animals and plants, while
continuing to deal with the problems of anthropology, archeology,
In 1876, he was offered to head the newly formed Department of
Anthropology at Moscow University.
Having accepted this proposal, Anuchin began by studying the work
experience of similar departments of universities in Western Europe,
visited the anthropological museums of Paris, Vienna, London and the
laboratories of leading scientific centers.
He used all the best he had seen to organize his department.
In 1878, he prepared the Russian department of the World
Anthropological Exhibition in Paris, a year later participated in
the VI Congress of Naturalists and Doctors of Russia.
In the same year he was elected a full member of the Imperial
Russian Geographical Society.
For the first time, Anuchin organized university studies in
anthropology, ethnography and geography in Russia and organized an
extensive Anthropological Museum at the University of Moscow (with
departments of ethnography and prehistoric archeology).
From 1875 he worked in the Society of lovers of natural science,
ethnography and anthropology, where he held various positions, and
since 1890 he was the permanent president of the Society.
At the same time, the Society was established in 1890. The
Geographical Department, which chose Anuchina as its chairman and
published the journal Zeleudovanie since 1894, is one of the first
popular science publications in Russia.
In 1885, Anuchin headed the department of geography founded by
him at Moscow University, which he managed until the end of his
life, creating the Russian school of geographers, researchers and
Such prominent figures of Russian science as academician
Kruber and others.
Anuchin identified two large sections of geography: general
(geography), with the object of study the entire surface of the
Earth and private (regional geography), studying parts of the
Earth's surface, country and region.
He considered the geographic environment to be a decisive factor
in the development of society, and even a hundred years before the
birth of the concept “ecology”, he advocated respect for it.
In 1889, Anuchin was awarded the Imperial Russian Geographical
Society Gold Medal for an original
study on the geographical distribution of the male population of
Russia according to height.
Anuchin paid much attention to the history of geography, its
popularization, preservation of the memory of prominent geographers
He wrote remarkable essays about
Przhevalsky and many others.
Anuchin did not belong to the category of cabinet scientists.
Participation in numerous expeditions and field studies allowed
him to collect a huge amount of scientific material, on the basis of
which such fundamental works were born as “Relief of the surface of
European Russia in the consistent development of the concept of it”,
“Upper Volga lakes and the upper reaches of the Western Dvina.
Reconnaissance and research of 1894–1895”, “Japan and the
Geographical, anthropological and ethnographic essay", and a
number of other scientific studies.
In 1896, Anuchin was elected valid, and in 1898, an honorary
member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
For many years he headed the Society of lovers of natural
science, anthropology and ethnography.
Merit Anuchina awarded orders St. Vladimir
degrees, St. Anna
the foreign order
the Legion of Honor.
In 1913, he was awarded the
Konstantin Medal, the highest award of the Imperial Russian
Geographical Society, for research on criminal statistics in Russia.
After the October Revolution, Anuchin, continuing fruitful
scientific and pedagogical activity, took an active part in the work
of state institutions and, in particular, the State Planning
He was one of the compilers and editors of the first Soviet Atlas
of the World.
He died in Moscow, buried in the
In Moscow, at number 6 on Khlebniy Lane, in which Anuchin lived
installed a memorial plaque.
Cape in the north of the island of
Greeley archipelago Land of Fanz-Joseph.
Named by cartographers in 1955.
Cape in the east of the island of
the October Revolution of the archipelago Severnaya Zemlya.
Opened and named by hydrographic expedition of the Arctic Ocean
Region in 1913.
A glacier northeast of Mack Bay on
the west coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya.
Named in 1913, by the expedition
The lake to the south of the
Maud Bay and the
river to the east of the
Faddey Gulf on the northeast coast of Taimyr.
Named in 1951 by the North Taimyr Expedition.