Fersman Alexander Evgenievich
outstanding geochemist and mineralogist, academician of the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Academy of Sciences.
Born in St. Petersburg in the family of the general artillery. My
father studied at the Academy of the General Staff, after which he
was assigned first to the Crimea, and then military attaché to
the Crimea, at the age of six, the boy became interested in
collecting stones. Having
learned that a strong department of geology was established at
Moscow University, Fersman went to Moscow, entered the university,
and graduated in 1907. After
graduation, he worked for two years in Paris at the French
Lacroix and in
Heidelberg in the laboratory of the Norwegian geochemist V.M. Goldschmidt.
Since 1909, he began his teaching activities, first in his native
university, and since 1910 in the national University. Shanyavsky,
where he was given the first course of geochemistry. Since
1912, Fersman became a professor of mineralogy at the Higher Women's
(Bestuzhev) courses in St. Petersburg, combining this work with the
duties of the senior curator of the Mineralogical Museum of the
Academy of Sciences, and later its director (1919–1930).
In 1912 Fersman became one of the organizers and editors of the
journal Nature. In
1915, on his initiative, a Commission for Raw Materials and Chemical
Materials was organized under the Committee of Military Technical
Assistance, which he headed; at
the same time being the secretary of the Commission for the Study of
Natural Productive Forces under the Academy of Sciences.
After the October Revolution, Fersman participated in studies of
the Kola Peninsula, Tien Shan, Kyzylkum and Karakum, the Urals,
Transbaikalia and other regions of the USSR.
Of particular practical importance were the
studies of the Khibiny tundra and the Monchetundra, where, with his
participation, deposits of apatite and copper-nickel ores were
Memorial plaque. Petersburg,
the embankment of Lieutenant Schmidt, d .
Along with V.I. Vernadsky
Fersman became the founder of the science of geochemistry. He
wrote a fundamental research in this area - the four-volume
"Geochemistry", which was released during 1933-1939. He
was one of the first to substantiate the need to apply geochemical
methods when searching for mineral deposits. He
paid much attention to the problems of regional geochemistry and, as
early as 1926, he outlined the Mongol-Okhotsk geochemical belt for
the first time.
The role of Fersman in the popularization of science is great. Being
the greatest expert on precious and ornamental stones, he dedicated
a whole series of scientific and popular science works to them. His
books such as Memories of the Stone, Entertaining Mineralogy,
Entertaining Geochemistry and others have brought many young people
Over the years, Fersman held various scientific posts:
Academician-Secretary of the Division of Physical and Mathematical
Sciences and its Vice-President, Member of the Presidium of the USSR
Academy of Sciences, Director of the Radium Institute of the USSR
Academy of Sciences, Chairman of the Ural Branch of the USSR Academy
of Sciences, Kola Base named C.M. Kirov
at the USSR Academy of Sciences, director of the Institute of
Crystallography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry.Mv Lomonosov
and the Institute of Geological Sciences, USSR Academy of Sciences. During
the Great Patriotic War, he created and headed the commission of
scientific assistance to the Soviet Army at the Department of
Geological and Geographical Sciences of the USSR Academy of
Fersman's scientific merits are marked by the Lenin
Prize (1929), Stalin
Prize of 1 degree (1942),
palladium medal them. Wollaston
(1943) of the London Geological Society. He
was awarded Order
of the Red Banner of Labor.
He died in Sochi, was buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy
The island to
the north of the island Kheysa in archipelago Franz
Josef Land. Discovered
by the Smolny hunting vessel (captain D.M.
by Soviet cartographers in 1955.
the Taimyr Peninsula to the west of the Thaddeus Bay. Named
in 1947 by the head of the geological party of the North-Taimyr
the southern part of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya.