Golovnin Vasily Mikhailovich

Russian navigator, twice circled the globe, naval theorist, researcher of the Pacific Ocean and the Kuril Islands, vice admiral, corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, writer.
Born in the village of Gulynki, Pronsky district, Ryazan province in the estate of his parents. Golovniny - an ancient noble family.
Having lost his parents at a young age, Golovnin was identified in the Naval Cadet Corps.
At the age of fourteen he participated in battles with the Swedes in the Gulf of Finland. After graduating from the Marine Corps, in 1793–1801 he sailed in the Baltic and in the North Sea, in 1802–1806 he was a volunteer in British warships in the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic and the Antilles. During this period, he developed new marine signals that were used in the Russian Navy for a quarter of a century.
In the summer of 1807, on the sloop “Diana”, Golovnin sailed from Kronstadt on his first trip around the world, in the spring of 1808 he approached the Cape of Good Hope, but was detained by the British because of the outbreak of the Anglo-Russian war. Only a year later, Golovnin managed to steal the ship out of the harbor with a tailwind. He made a non-stop transition in the “roaring forties” to the island of Tanna (the New Hebrides archipelago) and in early October reached Kamchatka.
Cruising from Kamchatka to Baranov Island and back (1810), Golovnin collected data on the climatic conditions of the northern part of the Pacific Ocean, the following year he described and photographed the central part of the Kuril Islands from Raikoke Island to Urup Island, specifying on the map their shape and relative location. Having landed on the island of Kunashir to replenish supplies of food and water, Golovnin, along with six crew members and a smoker-translator, was captured by the Japanese. After being released from a two-year bondage, he returned through St. Petersburg and Kamchatka. The impressions and information gathered about Japan and the Japanese formed the basis for the “Notes of Captain Golovnin’s fleet about his adventures held captive by the Japanese in 1811–1813”, published in 1816 and reprinted several times (the latest edition was in 1972). Translated into European languages, the book brought the author worldwide fame.
In the years 1817-1819 on the sloop "Kamchatka" Golovnin made the second round-the-world voyage; described the islands of the Aleutian ridge and the Commander Islands.
In 1821, Golovnin was appointed assistant director of the Naval Cadet Corps, in 1823 - the Fleet Quartermaster.
Golovnin brought up a galaxy of prominent sailors who became admirals: F. Wrangel, P. Anjou, F. Litke, F. Matyushkin, P. Rikord. Under his leadership, more than two hundred warships were built, including the first ten ships. Admiral Golovnin owns at least 205 volumes of books on geography and maritime affairs. In 1921, this book collection in separate form came from the Golovnins estate to Moscow University, later it was allocated from the general and exchange-reserve funds and is now stored in the rare books and manuscripts department of the Moscow State University Scientific Library
The merits of Golovnin are marked by the orders of St. George of the 4th degree and St. Anna and two orders of St. Vladimir.
He died of cholera during an epidemic that broke out in the capital. He was buried at the Mitrofanievsky cemetery in St. Petersburg.
Soon after the abolition of the Mitrofanievsky cemetery in 1927, the Golovnins clan crypt was destroyed.
On June 13, 2017, during the visiting meeting of the working group of the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg on the issues of perpetuation of memory and in the presence of a direct descendant of Peter Andreevich Golovnin, the exact coordinates of the burial were established (at the address: 15, Mitrofanievskoye Shosse, St. Petersburg, lit. . A), on the site of which it is planned to erect a monument to the mariner.
Mountain (on modern maps erroneously "Golovin") on the west coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. He named in 1821 F.P. Litke.


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