Marx Adolf Fedorovich
(02.02.1838 - 22.10.(04.11).1904)
book publisher and teacher, collector of folk songs. Founder
of the publishing house, later - Joint-Stock Company
“Publishing and Printing Partnership A.F. Marx".
Publisher of the illustrated magazine for family reading
Niva (1870–1918). Hereditary nobleman.
Born in Stettin (now Szczecin), in the family of a tower
clock manufacturer. At the end of the commercial school he
worked as a clerk in the book trade.
In 1859 he moved to Russia, worked for five years with the
bookseller F. Bitepage, and in 1863 he transferred to M.O.
Wolf. In 1864-1869 he taught foreign languages, served as a
clerk on the board of the Petersburg-Warsaw Railway.
In 1869, Marx published the first books: "The Statistical
Table of States and possessions of all parts of the world"
and "Koumiss. Its physiological and therapeutic effect ”by
Since 1870, Marx published the first weekly illustrated
weekly magazine for family reading, Niva, which he founded
and the first in Russia. The magazine published essays of a
geographical and historical nature, popular articles “on
sciences and art”, on medicine, etc. In the fiction section,
translated novels, novels, and works of Russian writers were
also published. Of particular interest to readers were photo
correspondence about major world events and reproductions
from paintings by prominent artists.
Since 1871, Marx began to practice the newsletter as an
appendix to the Niva of Paris Fashion Magazines, and since
September 1879 he began to release free applications to the
Niva - paintings, portraits, calendars, etc. Since 1894,
free applications to "Field" began to systematically go out
collected works of major Russian and foreign writers. At
first, the publisher published the authors, after whose
death at least 50 years have passed - in this case, there
was no need to pay royalties: for example, among such
authors were D. Fonvizin, I. Koltsov, I. Polezhaev,
Ekaterina II and others. Further, consolidating his
financial position, Marx was able to acquire rights from the
heirs of the classics. This publishing policy has borne
fruit: the magazine subscription has increased to 250
thousand copies, and due to its cheapness, publications by
A.F. Marx were distributed throughout the Russian province
in unprecedented circulation.
Own printing house A.F. Marx built and opened in 1896 in St.
Petersburg on Izmailovsky Prospekt, 29; 700 workers worked
in it in two shifts. In 1924, the printing house was named
after its employee, a young commune Yevgenia Sokolova.
Among the company’s editions are collected works as annexes
or independently, and separate works of
M.V. Lomonosov, V.A.
Zhukovsky, M.Yu. Lermontova, A.S. Griboedova, N.V. Gogol,
I.A. Goncharova, F.M. Dostoevsky, I.S. Turgeneva, M.E.
Saltykov-Shchedrin, N.S. Leskova, A.P. Chekhov, A.A. Feta,
J.B. Moliere, G. Ibsen, M. Meterlink and others, beautifully
decorated "Faust" I.V. Goethe and The Lost Paradise by J.
Milton. Books on natural science, art, gift illustrated
large-format publications - “Dead Souls” N.V. Gogol (1900),
“Lis Patrikeevich” I.V. Goethe (1901), "History of Art" P.P.
Gnedich et al. Along with books, Marx also published
cartographic publications: The Big World Table Atlas,
Universal Geographical and Statistical Pocket Atlas, etc.
According to the will of the owner, after his death in 1904,
the publishing house was transformed into the joint-stock
company “A.F. Publishing and Printing Partnership Marx".
In 1914, most of the shares were acquired by the famous
publisher I.D. Sytin. In 1917 it ceased to exist, but for
some time books with its brand continued to be published
stereotypically by the Soviet publishing houses Narcompros
He died in St. Petersburg, was buried in the Novodevichy
cemetery. The grave has not been preserved.
A river that flows into the Unknown Bay on the Kara coast of
the northern island of Novaya Zemlya is about 3-4 km
northwest of Cape Vereshchagin.