**
Abel
Niels Henrik**
**
(05.08.1802 - 06.04.1829)**
**
****The Norwegian mathematician is one of the most outstanding
mathematicians of all mankind.**
**
Born in Finney in the family of a pastor.**
**
Abel's childhood was overshadowed by poor health, as well as
drunkenness and constant discord of his parents.**
**
At school, thanks to teacher Bert Michael Holmboe, the boy became
interested in mathematics.**
**
In his service report of 1819, Holmboe wrote about his 17-year-old
student: With a superior genius, he combines insatiable interest and
math to mathematics, so if he lives, he is likely to become a great
mathematician.**
**
In 1820 Abel's father died, and the family (six children) was on
the verge of poverty.**
**
His older brother, Hansa-Mathias, was found to have a mental
breakdown.**
**
Responsibility for the family fell on the shoulders of 18-year-old
Niels Henrik.**
**
In 1821 Abel entered Christiania University (now Oslo), where the
teachers, having familiarized themselves with his early work,
decided to establish a scholarship from his personal funds, “in
order to preserve this rare talent for science”.**
**
To make life easier for his mother, Nils Henrik took one of the
brothers to him and began to earn money by tutoring.**
**
In 1822 Abel received the degree of "candidate of philosophy".**
**
In the winter of 1822-1823, he presented the university with the
first significant scientific work on the integrability of
differential equations.**
**
The manuscript was not published and was subsequently lost, but for
her, Abel was finally assigned a state scholarship.**
**
In 1823 Abel completed a brilliant study of an ancient problem: he
proved the impossibility of solving the equation of the 5th degree
in general terms (in radicals).**
**
During a trip to Copenhagen, he met Kristina ("Krellie") Kemp and
young people began to make plans for living together, for which you
need to take a well-paid position.**
**
K****rellie was poor, like himself, and earned a living by tutoring.**
**
In 1824 the university allowed Abel a paid trip abroad to continue
his education.**
**
First, Abel went to Berlin, where he lived from September 1825 to
February 1826.**
**
There he met Augustus Krell, who arranged for Niels to work for the
journal Mathematical Journal for Children and Teenagers.**
**
The work of Abel in this period related mainly to the theory of
elliptic functions, which he significantly advanced simultaneously
with Carl Gustav Jacobi.**
**
The competition of these two prominent mathematicians for several
years has brought significant benefits to science.**
**
He was interested in the problem of solving algebraic equations.**
**
After reading Girolamo Cardano's book “Great Art, or the Rules of
Algebra”, Abel came up with the modern formulation of the problem:
“The equation of the fifth degree cannot be solved in radicals”.**
**
It was brilliant.**
**
Now these equations are called Abelian.**
**
However, the report of Abel on the theory of functions, sent to the
Paris Academy of Sciences, French mathematicians simply "did not
notice."**
**
This work has long collected dust in the Paris archives and was
printed only after the death of the author.**
**
Abel’s next trip abroad covered Dresden, Prague, Vienna, Graz,
Trieste, Venice, Padua, Verona, Bautzen, Paris, Brussels, Berlin.**
**
It was not tourism in the usual sense, but rather a “foreign
scientific mission”.**
**
Nils worked a lot, wrote 6 articles.**
**
"I discovered so many wonderful theorems that I just can not believe
it".**
**
**
**Monument to Abel in Erstad** |
**
Abel worked, mined countless mathematical treasures, created
theorems, but his manuscripts were lost.**
**
No money, a terrible mood, the sick Nils is returning to
Christiania.**
**
“I am poor as a church rat”, he wrote.**
**
Some debts and no clearance.**
**
Permanent work, permanent earnings Niels Abel did not receive.**
**
The only official recognition of the merits of a scientist is his
election as a member of the Royal Scientific Society of Norway.**
**
Autumn 1828 Nils met in bed.**
**
He is sick.**
**
His health, already weak, has been completely undermined.**
**
Constant need and malnutrition, grueling work did their job.**
**
Doctors suspect he has tuberculosis.**
**
During a trip to Florand in December of the same year (his bride
worked there), Niels caught a bad cold.**
**
Severe pneumonia superimposed on tuberculosis.**
**
He died at the age of only 26 years.**
**
A few days after his death, the long-awaited news came from Berlin -
Niels Abel was invited to a highly paid and prestigious job at the
University of Berlin.**
**
The great mathematician lived a very short life.**
**
His theorems, integrals, formulas and groups are still used today.**
**
He never knew that.**
**
The cold country was icy to her great son.**
**
“Abel left mathematics so rich a legacy that he will have something
to do in the next 500 years” - Charles Hermite is an eminent French
mathematician.**
**
Abel erected monuments in Oslo and Erstad.**
**
His portrait was placed on a Norwegian banknote 500 CZK (1978).**
**
In 2002, in honor of the 200th anniversary of Abel, the Norwegian
government established the Abel Prize in Mathematics.**
**
Buried in Frolande at the
local cemetery.**
**
The northernmost
island in the archipelago of King
Charles Land, Spitsbergen.**
**
The coordinates
are** **79°N
30°E.**
**
Mountains on Dixon Land, Svalbard.**
**
The coordinates
are** **78°50'N
16°E.** |