Backlund Oscar Andreevich
astronomer, academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences
Born near Karlstad in Sweden.
In 1872 he graduated from the University of Uppsala, from 1875 an
astronomer-observer in Dorpat.
In 1876, Backlund moved to Russia.
In 1879–1887, he was an adjunct astronomer at the Pulkovo
Observatory, and from 1895 its director.
Well aware that with all the efforts of Pulkovo at 60 °
N unable to compete with observatories
located to the south and in more favorable conditions, Backlund gave
a lot of energy to organizing astronomical observations in southern
First, a branch of the observatory in Odessa was opened, then he
did everything to create branches in Simeiz and Nikolaev.
Funds were released, tools were ordered, but the First World War
began, and the matter stalled.
He waited and did not wait.
Backlund participated in numerous Russian and international
scientific enterprises: according to star paintings, according to
astronomical constants, according to ephemeris, by definition of
time using radio telegraphy, by degree measurement in Svalbard.
In geological expeditions of academician
Chernyshev, as an astronomer, he ensured the highest accuracy
of reference observations, in 1896 he led an expedition to Novaya
Zemlya to observe a total solar eclipse.
Active scientific activity allowed Backlund to visit the Arctic,
America, Africa, the Northern Urals.
Backlund’s Peru has a number of works on geodesy and celestial
mechanics, of which the most prominent are studies on the motion of
He determined the mass of Mercury.
According to contemporaries, the main motive of Bucklund’s life
was to sacrifice everything for the sake of science.
Guided by this, he spared neither himself nor the staff.
The number of mandatory hours of work with him has doubled, and
neither the position nor the age guaranteed the astronomer from
calling the director for reference or to familiarize himself with
the progress of work.
Thanks to Backlund, the Pulkovo Observatory gained fame for the
most authoritative scientific institution, astronomers from all over
the world flocked here to familiarize themselves with the methods of
observation and data processing.
Backlund was a member of a number of foreign academies and
He died in Pulkovo.
He was buried in the
cemetery of the Pulkovo Observatory.
Islands east of Eclipse Bay near
the coast of Khariton Laptev on Taimyr.
Named RPE in 1901.
islets , a
cove in the Taimyr Gulf.
The islands are called RPE in 1901.
The remaining objects were named in 1940 by the topographer N.N.
Mountain on the shore of
Borzov Bay on the west coast of the northern island of New Earth.
She called the expedition
Mountain on the island of
Named in 1899-1901 years expedition to "degree measurement".