Baer Karl Maksimovich (Karl Ernst)
Academician, founder of embryology, geographer, explorer of the
Arctic and seas around European Russia, one of the most prominent
naturalists of the 19th century.
Born in Estonia, in the Pip estate in the family estate.
At first, he was brought up at home with his sisters and brothers
under the guidance of his father and several teachers.
Secondary education in the school of nobility of Revel.
After graduating from the medical faculty of the University of
Derpt, Baer worked in Austria and Germany, since 1819 he is a
professor at the University of Königsberg.
In 1827, Baer was elected a corresponding member of the St.
Petersburg Academy of Sciences, and a year later - her full member.
In 1834 he returned to Russia.
In 1837, Baer led a scientific expedition to Novaya Zemlya on the
Krotov schooner, the captain of which was
The main task of this expedition, in contrast to all the previous
ones on Novaya Zemlya, was to study its geological structure,
acquaintance with fauna and flora.
The first stupid information on these issues was only in
report on the results of his voyage of 1767–1768, but this was not a
The expedition of Baer, in addition to him, included the natural
geologist Raeder and laboratory assistant Filippov.
In Arkhangelsk, it turned out that the Krokh schooner was so
small that it could not take all the members of the expedition, much
less a living cow, which Baer intended to take as a stock of fresh
Subsequently, he wrote, not without humor, that "with the same
success it was possible to load Krotov on a cow."
We came out of the situation by agreeing with one of the
coast-dwellers on our way to Novaya Zemlya to take part of the
expedition members on our boat.
In mid-June, they left Arkhangelsk, conducted botanical and
zoological research in its vicinity, then with the same purpose
visited several points in Lapland and only in the second half of
July dropped anchor at the western entrance to the Matochkin
Ball Strait near the place where Tsivolka wintered with
in the years 1834-1835.
For several days, various natural-scientific studies were
conducted here, on July 31, they entered Matochkin Shar, the western
half of which turned out to be ice-free.
Then they moved into the boat and got to the Kara Sea on it.
Going on a boat trip, violated one of the main commandments of
polar explorers: "Going for a day, stock up on everything you need
for a month."
Intending to return to the ship for the night, the travelers did
not stock up on anything necessary for a more or less extended stay
outside the ship.
Insidious arctic weather immediately gave them a lot of trouble.
The rising strong wind made it impossible to return by boat.
The first days of August had to be carried out in the rain, at a
temperature of 4–5 °
С without any roof over their heads and the practical absence of
The return along the coast was impossible because of the
impassable bare rocks rising straight from the water.
Fortunately, managed to meet Pomorie, otherwise the journey could
end in tragedy.
After leaving Matochkin Shar, they examined the south of the
western coast of Novaya
Zemlya , and on August 31 they left the archipelago and on
September 11 they safely reached Arkhangelsk.
The Baer expedition has received excellent scientific results,
becoming an important step in the study of the Arctic.
She collected collections of up to 90 plant species and up to 70
Geological studies led to the conclusion that Novaya Zemlya was
formed in the Silurian and Devonian eras.
In 1838, Baer published the results of his research.
He developed projects for new expeditions to the Arctic, pointing
out the importance of studying its climate, the need for geophysical
In subsequent years, Baer explored the islands of the Gulf of
Finland (1839), the Kola Peninsula (1840), the Mediterranean Sea
(1845–1846), the shores of the Baltic Sea (1851–1852), the Caspian
Sea Region, and the Caspian Sea (1853–1856) , The Sea of Azov
Monument to .M.
Baer in the building of the Academy of Sciences
in St. Petersburg
His works on the undermining of the right banks of the rivers in
the Northern Hemisphere and of the left in the Southern (the
so-called “Baer Law”) were best known.
Rem along with
was one of the founders of the IRGO.
In 1861, he received the highest award of the IRGO - the
Konstantinovsky Medal .
The works of Baire were not only purely scientific, but also
In particular, this applies to his work on the study and
rationalization of fisheries on Lake Peipsi, in the Azov and Caspian
In 1862, in old age, Baer left the Academy of Sciences, and in
1865 he was elected an honorary member and moved to Dorpat, where he
Buried in the cemetery of
which is located in the south-east of Tartu Raadi cemetery.
An island in the bay of Bathurst of
the Beaufort Sea.
An island east of the Prince
of Wales Island in the Peel Strait in the Canadian Arctic
An island in the Taimyr Bay.
Named in 1843 by
Cape on the west coast of the
northern island of New Earth.
Cape in the east of the
island of Salm archipelago Franz Josef Land.
The name appeared on the map of the Austrian expedition of
J. Payer and
Cape in the southwest of
Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Mountains on the southern
coast of Middendorf Bay on Taimyr.
Named in 1900, RP
Mountain on the west coast
of the island of Edge, Svalbard.
77 º 50'N 21
Named A. Peterman.
Bay in the north of Devon
Island in the Canadian Arctic archipelago.