Bell Alexander Graham
outstanding American scientist, author of numerous inventions.
Born in Edinburgh, Scotland in the family of a famous teacher
A.M. Bell. His
mother was a famous portrait painter and musician. He
graduated from Edinburgh University and University College in
began working with his father, who developed a method for the
visible image of sounds. He
used this method to teach reading to deaf people. In
1870, Bell moved to North America and during 1871, he lectured to
deaf teachers in Boston and other cities. Over
the next few years, he led his own school of physiology of voice in
Boston, lectured and engaged in invention. His
methods were of great importance in teaching the deaf.
Bell was a great and fruitful inventor. Back
in 1865, he was interested in the idea of transmitting speech by
1876, Bell managed to develop a device, by which he was able to
convey to his assistant: "Watson, go here, I need you". The
first public demonstration of the apparatus took place in the
Academy of Sciences in Boston, and the next, more important, in the
same year at an exhibition held once in a century in Philadelphia.So
the telephone was put into use. In
1877, Bell founded the Telephone Company. There
were lengthy patent lawsuits in which Bell was fully supported by
the US Supreme Court. He
received a laboratory for the received Volta prize of 50 thousand
francs, which developed the phonograph (gramophone). They
also created a photophone - a device that transmits speech using
light rays, an audiometer - a device for the deaf, a device for
searching metal objects in the human body, and many others. Bell
investigated the nature of deafness in humans, conducted a detailed
study of its heredity. On
his initiative, the journal Science was founded, which became the
official body of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science, and also in 1890 the American Association for the Support
of Learning to Speech from the Deaf.
From 1898, Bell headed the Smithsonian Institute, and in
1897–1903, the US National Geographic Society. After
1895, his research interests were mainly related to aeronautics.
For many years he lived in Washington or at his summer home in
Baddeck on Cape Breton Island in southeastern Canada, where he
conducted numerous experiments with aircraft.
had many honorary degrees and titles from various American and
European academies of science and universities.
a heart attack in baddeck. On
a rainy morning on August 4, 1922, all phones were turned off for a
minute in the USA and Canada. America
was burying Alexander Greham Bell. 13
million telephone sets of thousands of various types and designs
were silenced in honor of the great inventor. He
was buried on
top of Mount Beinn Bhreagh, in
his estate, where he lived
of his life.
The island (Graham
Bell) in the east of the Franz Josef Land archipelago. Opened
and named in 1899 by E.
It can be assumed that the names of two other islands in the
southwest of the Franz Josef Land are also connected with Bell -
these are the Bell and Meibel Islands, discovered in 1880 by B.
to K.R. Markham
the first of them is
named for its bell-shaped form (“bell” in English bell). Perhaps
the shape of the island reminded Lee Smith of Bella. The
origin of the second is not established. Maybe
this is the name of his wife Bella - Maybel Gardiner? Why
not mention the Scottish Lee Smith, his already well-known