Bredikhin Fedor Aleksandrovich 
(08(20).12.1831–01(14).05.1904)


An outstanding Russian astronomer, academician. 
He was born in Nikolaev in the family of a naval officer, a participant in the Russian-Turkish war of 1827–1829. His mother was the sister of Admiral Roguli, the commandant of Sevastopol during the Crimean War. It is not surprising that in his youth Bredikhin dreamed of a career as a naval officer. Being engaged in the Odessa Lyceum, Bredikhin paid special attention to physics and mathematics, believing that these sciences are the basis of all technical knowledge, including in the marine business. Following this line, he entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow University. But fate had its own way. 
During his years of study, Bredikhin began visiting the Moscow Observatory, became interested in astronomy and abandoned thoughts of a sailor’s career. At 26 he became an astronomy teacher, and at 32 he was a professor. 
For many years, Bredikhin’s activity was associated with Moscow University, where in 1862 he defended his master’s degree and in 1865 his doctoral dissertation. 
In 1867 he was sent to Italy to get acquainted with the work of the Society of Italian spectroscopists. In 1873–1876, Bredikhin headed the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow University, and in 1873–1890 a university observatory. He is considered to be the creator of the "Moscow Astrophysical School". From 1890 to 1895, Bredikhin served as director of the Pulkovo Observatory. 
Bredikhin's research covered almost all the major sections of astronomy at the time. He observed with extreme accuracy on the meridian circle, measured the positions of small planets with a micrometer with a micrometer, investigated the errors of the micrometer screw and the so-called personal errors of the observer. With his direct participation, systematic observations of the solar chromosphere by a prominent spectroscope, photographing of sunspots and torches, and investigations of the surface of the Moon and the planets Mars and Jupiter began. In 1875, Bredikhin was among the first to begin the study of the chemical composition of radiating gas nebulae. 
He made a significant contribution to other areas - from instrumental optics to gravimetry.However, the main focus of his research was the study of comets, begun in 1861. He developed and perfected the theory of Bessel, created the most complete at that time "mechanical theory of comet forms", which allowed to describe the motion of matter not only near the head, but also in the tail of a comet. 
For his great scientific achievements, Bredikhin was elected an honorary member of many scientific societies, both Russian and foreign. In memory of him, the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1946 established his award for outstanding work in the field of astronomy. 
He died of a cold, was buried according to a testament in a family crypt in the village of Vladychnoye (now Zavolzhsk ) near Kineshma. 
Mountain range on the island of West Svalbard. Named in 1899-1901, the expedition to "degree measurement." 
A mountain on the southern island of Novaya Zemlya east of Malykh Karmakul. 
Named in 1896 by the expedition of the Academy of Sciences.

 

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