Bredikhin Fedor Aleksandrovich
outstanding Russian astronomer, academician.
He was born in Nikolaev in the family of a naval officer, a
participant in the Russian-Turkish war of 1827–1829. His
mother was the sister of Admiral Roguli, the commandant of
Sevastopol during the Crimean War. It
is not surprising that in his youth Bredikhin dreamed of a career as
a naval officer. Being
engaged in the Odessa Lyceum, Bredikhin paid special attention to
physics and mathematics, believing that these sciences are the basis
of all technical knowledge, including in the marine business. Following
this line, he entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow
fate had its own way.
During his years of study, Bredikhin began visiting the Moscow
Observatory, became interested in astronomy and abandoned thoughts
of a sailor’s career. At
26 he became an astronomy teacher, and at 32 he was a professor.
For many years, Bredikhin’s activity was associated with Moscow
University, where in 1862 he defended his master’s degree and in
1865 his doctoral dissertation.
In 1867 he was sent to Italy to get acquainted with the work of
the Society of Italian spectroscopists. In
1873–1876, Bredikhin headed the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of
Moscow University, and in 1873–1890 a university observatory. He
is considered to be the creator of the "Moscow Astrophysical
1890 to 1895, Bredikhin served as director of the Pulkovo
Bredikhin's research covered almost all the major sections of
astronomy at the time. He
observed with extreme accuracy on the meridian circle, measured the
positions of small planets with a micrometer with a micrometer,
investigated the errors of the micrometer screw and the so-called
personal errors of the observer. With
his direct participation, systematic observations of the solar
chromosphere by a prominent spectroscope, photographing of sunspots
and torches, and investigations of the surface of the Moon and the
planets Mars and Jupiter began. In
1875, Bredikhin was among the first to begin the study of the
chemical composition of radiating gas nebulae. He
made a significant contribution to other areas - from instrumental
optics to gravimetry.However, the main focus of his research was the
study of comets, begun in 1861.
He developed and perfected the theory of Bessel, created the most
complete at that time "mechanical theory of comet forms", which
allowed to describe the motion of matter not only near the head, but
also in the tail of a comet.
For his great scientific achievements, Bredikhin was elected an
honorary member of many scientific societies, both Russian and
memory of him, the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1946
established his award for outstanding work in the field of
He died of a cold, was buried according
to a testament in a
family crypt in
the village of Vladychnoye (now Zavolzhsk) near
Mountain range on
the island of West Svalbard. Named
in 1899-1901 by the expedition to "degree measurement".
A mountain on
the southern island of Novaya Zemlya east of Malykh Karmakul. Named
in 1896 by the expedition of the Academy of Sciences.