Bunge Alexander Alexandrovich
of Medicine, zoologist and traveler, an outstanding Arctic explorer,
son of the famous Alexander Andreevich Bunge, botanist, honorary
academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, professor at
the University of Dorpat.
Born in Dorpat, he graduated from the Medical Faculty of the
University of Dorpat, in 1880 he defended his thesis for the degree
of doctor of medicine. From
1877 to 1881 he was a doctor in the hospitals of Dorpat and St.
Becoming a naval sailor, Bunge served for many years on various
ships of the navy, was the flagship doctor of the headquarters of
the Pacific Ocean squadron, headquarters of the head of the united
Baltic Sea forces, the flagship doctor of the Baltic fleet, and
participated in the Russian-Japanese war. In
1908, the Russian squadron provided assistance to the residents of
Sicily who were affected by a major earthquake.A huge role in this
was played by the flagship doctor of the Bunge squadron. However,
he went down in history primarily because of his research in the
In 1882, Bunge was invited to work at the Sagastyr post,
organized in the Lena Delta within the framework of the First
International Polar Year,
where he headed meteorological observations and also conducted
botanical and zoological research. After
the first wintering in the summer of 1883, he traveled to the
Bykovskaya channel of the Lena delta to the place where in 1806
Adams extracted the
first mammoth skeleton in the history of science, which was kept in
the St. Petersburg Kunstkammer, and then in the Zoological Museum of
the USSR Academy of Sciences. On
the way, Bunge surveyed the arms and islands of the Lena Delta and
visited the site
of the last camp D.
this trip, he collected bones of fossil animals and extremely rich
mineralogical and botanical collections. By
decision of the IRGO, the expedition remained for the second
In 1885–1886 Bunge
led the expedition of the Academy of Sciences on the New Siberian
Islands, and personally investigated the
Bolshoi Lyakhovsky islands. This
was the first expedition to the New Siberian Islands after the expedition P.F. Anjou in
the years 1820–1823 and in fact the first scientific expedition,
which set itself the goal of not only and not so much shooting the
shores, as a comprehensive study of the archipelago. Novosibirsk
expedition Bunge performed extensive meteorological, biological and
geological research. Assistant
Bunge was E.V. Toll,
who examined the eastern part of the Anjou Islands. The
expedition gave an extremely rich material on the nature of the
Novosibirsk archipelago. The
scientific community highly appreciated the results of this
1888, the IRGO awarded Bunge
of Count F.P. Litke,
the meteorological observations of the expedition were used by F.
Nansen in his famous
voyage on the Fram.
In 1892 and 1895, Bunge participated in the Yenisei Expedition,
which aimed to bring construction materials for the Siberian Railway
to the Kara Sea. Returning
from the Yenisei expedition, he took part in a three-year
round-the-world cruise on the Rurik cruiser.
After sailing in 1900, Bunge received an invitation to the
Russian expedition on “degree measurements” on Svalbard, where, in
addition to fulfilling his basic medical duties, he conducted
magnetic and meteorological observations, collected collections of
flora and fauna, studied the climatic features of Svalbard and their
influence on the human body.
Returning from Spitsbergen at the end of 1900, Bunge did not stay
long in St. Petersburg. Already
in 1901, he went to a long voyage in the Pacific Ocean in the high
rank of the flagship doctor. During
the Russo-Japanese War, Bunge survived the entire siege of Port
the surrender of the fortress through Shanghai, he returned to St.
Petersburg and immediately accepted the offer to participate in the
expedition to the mouth of the Yenisei.
In 1912, Bunge was a member of the maritime ministry’s commission
for reviewing the expedition project G.Ya. Sedov to
the North Pole. He
turned out to be the only member of the commission who supported
this project. In
accordance with his recommendations, P.G. Kushakov
was included in the expedition of Sedov.
In 1914, “by age limit”, Bunge resigned and lived out his life at
home in Estonia, where he had a farm. But
at the “age limit” he could not deal with the farm, sold it and
moved to Revel. There
he died, a little before reaching 80 years. He
was buried in Tartu in the Raadi cemetery.
Array Kotel'niy, Land Bunge, Faddeevsky
An island (Bunge
Land) between the Kotelny and Faddeevsky islands. He
opened in 1811 J.
Sannikov, later named E.V. Toll. The
assignment of Bunge Earth to the island is conditional as well as
conditional assignment to the islands of Kotelny and Faddeyevsky. These
three objects make up a single land mass.This
is explained by the fact that when Sannikov opened Kotelniy and
Faddeyevsky, he took the Bunge Land, covered with snow, beyond the
sea strait. After
the discovery of Bunge Earth, geographical names did not change.
The peninsula on
the Russian island of the Nordensheld archipelago. Named
in 1901 by E.V. Toll,
who initially took it for an island.
Glacier, moraine, lake, plain, river in
the western part of the Earth Circapp on the island of Western
in 1899-1901 years by expedition to "degree measurement".
the west coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. Named
in 1913 by G.Ya. Sedov.
(photo by I.I. Lavrentyev. Murman Arctic Complex
the island of Western Spitsbergen in the eastern part of the Geer
in 1899-1901, by the expedition members on the "degree measurement".
In honor of Bunge, apparently, named Cape (Doktorsky)
in the north of the Lena Delta.