Bunge Alexander Alexandrovich 

Doctor of Medicine, zoologist and traveler, an outstanding Arctic explorer, son of the famous Alexander Andreevich Bunge, botanist, honorary academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, professor at the University of Dorpat. 
Born in Dorpat, he graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Dorpat, in 1880 he defended his thesis for the degree of doctor of medicine. From 1877 to 1881 he was a doctor in the hospitals of Dorpat and St. Petersburg. 
Becoming a naval sailor, Bunge served for many years on various ships of the navy, was the flagship doctor of the headquarters of the Pacific Ocean squadron, headquarters of the head of the united Baltic Sea forces, the flagship doctor of the Baltic fleet, and participated in the Russian-Japanese war. In 1908, the Russian squadron provided assistance to the residents of Sicily who were affected by a major earthquake.A huge role in this was played by the flagship doctor of the Bunge squadron. However, he went down in history primarily because of his research in the Arctic. 
In 1882, Bunge was invited to work at the Sagastyr post, organized in the Lena Delta within the framework of the First
International Polar Year, where he headed meteorological observations and also conducted botanical and zoological research. After the first wintering in the summer of 1883, he traveled to the Bykovskaya channel of the Lena delta to the place where in 1806 naturalist Michael Adams extracted the first mammoth skeleton in the history of science, which was kept in the St. Petersburg Kunstkammer, and then in the Zoological Museum of the USSR Academy of Sciences. On the way, Bunge surveyed the arms and islands of the Lena Delta and visited the site of the last camp D. De-Long. On this trip, he collected bones of fossil animals and extremely rich mineralogical and botanical collections. By decision of the IRGO, the expedition remained for the second wintering. 
In 1885–1886 Bunge led the expedition of the Academy of Sciences on the New Siberian Islands, and personally investigated the Kotelny and Bolshoi Lyakhovsky islands. This was the first expedition to the New Siberian Islands after the  expedition P.F. Anjou in the years 1820–1823 and in fact the first scientific expedition, which set itself the goal of not only and not so much shooting the shores, as a comprehensive study of the archipelago. Novosibirsk expedition Bunge performed extensive meteorological, biological and geological research. Assistant Bunge was E.V. Toll, who examined the eastern part of the Anjou Islands. The expedition gave an extremely rich material on the nature of the Novosibirsk archipelago. The scientific community highly appreciated the results of this expedition. In 1888, the IRGO awarded Bunge a medal of Count F.P. Litke, the meteorological observations of the expedition were used by F. Nansen in his famous voyage on the Fram. 
In 1892 and 1895, Bunge participated in the Yenisei Expedition, which aimed to bring construction materials for the Siberian Railway to the Kara Sea. Returning from the Yenisei expedition, he took part in a three-year round-the-world cruise on the Rurik cruiser. 
After sailing in 1900, Bunge received an invitation to the Russian expedition on “degree measurements” on Svalbard, where, in addition to fulfilling his basic medical duties, he conducted magnetic and meteorological observations, collected collections of flora and fauna, studied the climatic features of Svalbard and their influence on the human body. 
Returning from Spitsbergen at the end of 1900, Bunge did not stay long in St. Petersburg. Already in 1901, he went to a long voyage in the Pacific Ocean in the high rank of the flagship doctor. During the Russo-Japanese War, Bunge survived the entire siege of Port Arthur. 
After the surrender of the fortress through Shanghai, he returned to St. Petersburg and immediately accepted the offer to participate in the expedition to the mouth of the Yenisei.


Raadi Cemetery

In 1912, Bunge was a member of the maritime ministry’s commission for reviewing the expedition project G.Ya. Sedov to the North Pole. He turned out to be the only member of the commission who supported this project. In accordance with his recommendations, P.G. Kushakov was included in the expedition of Sedov. 
In 1914, “by age limit”, Bunge resigned and lived out his life at home in Estonia, where he had a farm. But at the “age limit” he could not deal with the farm, sold it and moved to Revel. There he died, a little before reaching 80 years. He was buried in Tartu in the Raadi cemetery.


Array Kotel'niy, Land Bunge, Faddeevsky

(satellite image)

An island (Bunge Land) between the Kotelny and Faddeevsky islands. He opened in 1811 J. Sannikov, later named E.V. Toll. The assignment of Bunge Earth to the island is conditional as well as conditional assignment to the islands of Kotelny and Faddeyevsky. These three objects make up a single land mass.This is explained by the fact that when Sannikov opened Kotelniy and Faddeyevsky, he took the Bunge Land, covered with snow, beyond the sea strait. After the discovery of Bunge Earth, geographical names did not change. 
The peninsula on the Russian island of the Nordensheld archipelago. Named in 1901 by E.V. Toll, who initially took it for an island. 
Glacier, moraine, lake, plain, river in the western part of the Earth Circapp on the island of Western Spitsbergen. Named in 1899-1901 years by expedition to "degree measurement". 
Glacier on the west coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. Named in 1913 by G.Ya. Sedov.


Bunge Glacier

(photo by I.I. Lavrentyev. Murman Arctic Complex expedition

Mountain on the island of Western Spitsbergen in the eastern part of the Geer Land. Named in 1899-1901, by the expedition members on the "degree measurement".

In honor of Bunge, apparently, named Cape (Doktorsky) in the north of the Lena Delta.


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