Jackson Frederick Georg
English traveler and explorer.
Born in Warwickshire in the family parish priest.
Jackson received his initial education at Denston College, after
which he left for Australia to study sheep breeding at the age of
was here that he made his first trip, having traveled 1,700 miles
through the almost uninhabited and unexplored Australian desert.
In 1881, Jackson returned to England and entered the medical
department of the University of Edinburgh, from which he graduated
in 1886.All subsequent life showed that his main vocation was
traveling, discovering and exploring new lands, studying their
character of Jackson combined curiosity and curiosity of the
scientist, the talent of the organizer and the excitement of the
qualities, supported by received at the university medical and
natural science training, allowed him to achieve outstanding success
in the geographical field. The
breadth of the natural and climatic range of the regions studied by
Jackson is impressive: from the Arctic desert to the tropical
Immediately after graduating from university, he traveled around
Florida and other regions adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico for several
of purely sporting interest was supported by natural historical
Returning to England, as early as the following 1887, Jackson
achieved the post of surgeon in the well-known whaling fleet of
Captain David Gray of Peterhead, with whom he first entered the
6 months, he returned with a huge collection that included an adult
live polar bear.
The second visit to the Arctic took place in 1893. Jackson
Island, and also in the winter time made a wonderful sledging
trip of up to 2500 miles from the shores of the Kara Sea through the
tundra to Pechora, from there to Arkhangelsk and then through
Russian Lapland to Cape North Cape. This
expedition of Jackson was the dress rehearsal before the
implementation of the large-scale research he had planned for the
Franz Josef Land archipelago, which had been opened 20 years before.
The expedition to Franz Josef Land was organized with the money
of the English newspaper magnate Alfred
Harmsworth and was
aimed at his comprehensive scientific research. By
that time, the archipelago was virtually unexplored. After
its discovery by the Austro-Hungarian expedition of J.
Payer and K.
Weyprecht, it was
visited only twice, and then only in its south-western part. In
1879, the Dutch approached him on the ship “Willem Barents” under
the command of A. De Bruyne, who discovered Hooker Island, but did
not land on the ground. In
expedition of B.
Lee-Smith worked on
The Jackson Expedition, which lasted from 1894–1897, was one of
the most brilliantly organized Arctic enterprises, thanks to which
the participants did not experience the slightest hardships during
the three winterings. Delivered
on the vessel "Windward" the British organized a base at Cape
Flora on Northbrook Island. Later,
a camp was established in the north of this island at Cape Lagerny. Careful
forethought and excellent preparedness of the expedition contributed
to the fruitful research activities.
The group consisted of ten people, among whom were such highly
qualified specialists as geophysicist A.
Armitage, geologist R. Ketlitz,
the botanist G. Fisher  ,
which allowed to conduct extensive geophysical, geological,
hydrobiological and mineralogical studies, to collect diverse
collections, to take a huge number of photos. The
expedition gave excellent results in studying the geography of Franz
Josef Land. She
established that this is a large archipelago consisting of many
large and small islands.The islands
of Scott Kelty, Ketlits, Nansen, Luigi, Salisbury, Elizabeth,
Jackson, Harley, Ommanney, Arthur, the Royal
Society and others
were discovered. A
number of geographical objects of the archipelago are named after
comrades Jackson and their families. The
description of the archipelago made by the expedition was the most
complete, and the constructed maps and maps were the most accurate
for that period of time. Research
Jackson was removed from the map of the non-existent Land of Gillis.
Left: Salisbury Island. Rocks
Right: Royal Society Islands
(photo by N. M. Stolbov)
1895, he named the cape in
the north-west of Salisbury Island in the name of G. Fisher.
Jackson had a happy fate and a light hand. The
base of his expedition, Cape Flora, was figuratively called the
"International Arctic Hotel". In
1896, Jackson met and sheltered F.
Nansen and F.
Johansen, who were returning after an unsuccessful campaign to
the pole. Do
not be this meeting, it is not known what their fate would
be. Jackson's “Are You Not Nansen” became as famous as “Dr.
Livingston, I suppose”, said another eminent researcher in Africa. After
18 years Jackson actually saved V.I. Albanov and
his companion A.E. Conrad,
who stumbled upon the Gurias, folded by Jackson with a note
explaining their whereabouts. In
the years 1904-1905 in
the house of Jackson, taking advantage of the food left by him, one
of the groups of the expedition of W.
Ziegler, A. Fiala, wintered. He
saved not only them, but the entire expedition of
Sedov, which used
the fuel left by Jackson. Sedovtsy
dismantled and the expedition house. In
1929, the Soviet expedition to the
hydrographic vessel "G. Sedov” discovered
Jackson intended at the first opportunity to continue the study
of the archipelago and beyond. He
planned to put his ship to the north of Coburg
and make sled trails on dogs or ponies from there. However,
this opportunity no longer presented itself. The
results of his work on Franz Josef Land Jackson published in 1899 in
a detailed, beautifully illustrated two-volume work "A Thousand Days
in the Arctic", unfortunately, not translated into Russian.
In 1898, for his arctic research, Jackson was elected an honorary
member of the Geographical Societies of America and Italy, received
first-class knighthood of the Royal
Order of St.
Olaf from the Swedish
King Oscar, and in 1899 was awarded the gold medal of the
Geographical Society in Paris. Oddly
enough, but there is no information about the awards from the
British Royal Geographical Society.
In subsequent years, Jackson participated in the Anglo-Boer and
World War I, was wounded, had many military decorations.
In 1925–1926 in
the seventh decade of his life, the indefatigable researcher made a
whole series of remarkable journeys already in the African tropics. He
crossed Africa in a northwesterly direction from Beira’s port in
Mozambique to Banana’s port in the mouth of the Congo, explored Lake
Tanganyika, passed through Rwanda, visited the Virunga volcanic
mountains, climbed the Congo Nature Reserve, descended from the Lake
Kivu sources to the mouth. Jackson
visited the origins of three great African rivers: the Congo, the
Nile and the Zambezi. The
recognition of his authority was the election to the commission
established by the League of Nations to study the living conditions
of the African population.
Jackson has completed his glorious, adventurous life in London. He is buried
in the cemetery
of St. Michael and St. Mary Magdalene at
Easthampstead in Berkshire. There is a plaque on the wall of the church : "In memory of Frederick George Jackson, Major
of the East Surrey Regiment, head of the polar
expedition of Jackson-Harmsworth
in 1894-1897. He
discovered, mapped and called most of Franz Josef Land and rescued Dr. Nansen. He died on March 13, 1938
at the age of 78".
An island in
the north of Franz Josef Land. Opened
and named in the spring of 1895 by members of the expedition of
An island in
the Barents Sea near the island Vaigach. Named
by Russian hydrographs in 1903.
The ice dome on
the island Hooker archipelago Franz-Josef
In the archipelago of Franz Josef Land north of the island of
George Land is Arthur's
after Jackson in honor of his brother.