Phipps Constantin John
(19.05.1744 - 10.10.1792)
British botanist, navigator and polar explorer. Officer of the Royal Navy. Member of Parliament. A member of the Royal Society of London and the London Society of Antiquaries.
Born in England. The eldest son of Constantine Phipps, 1st Baron Mulgrave, peer of Ireland. Educated at Eton College. Together with Phipps, he studied Joseph Banks, who later also became a botanist and naturalist, and also headed the Royal Society of London.
In January 1759, Phipps entered the cadet (midshipman) on the 70-gun battleship Monmouth, whose captain was his uncle Augustus John Hervey. In 1761, together with his uncle, he was transferred to the 74-gun battleship "Dragon". In early 1762, he participated in the expedition of Rear Admiral Rodney in Martinique and Saint Lucia. March 17 received the rank of lieutenant. In the summer of the same year he took part in the siege of Havana.
On November 24, 1763, he was appointed captain of the 12-gun sloop "Diligence". June 20, 1765 - 24-gun frigate "Terpsichore" (6 rank ship). In 1766, together with Joseph Banks, on the frigate Niger, under the command of Captain Thomas Adams, participated in navigation on Newfoundland. In 1767–1768 he commanded the Borey frigate in the English Channel.
During the years 1768-1774, Phipps was a member of parliament for Lincoln County.
On June 4, 1773, at the head of the Reichhorse sloop and the bombardier ship Carcass, Phipps set off from Deptford on an expedition to the North Pole. Among the members of the expedition was the future naval commander Horatio Nelson. The expedition reached Spitsbergen and the Seven Islands, but because of the ice on September 17, it was forced to return. During the expedition, Phipps, the first of Europeans, compiled descriptions of a polar bear and a white gull. In 1774, his book The Journey to the North Pole, undertaken on the order of His Majesty in 1773 (A Maid of His Majesty's Command 1773) was published.
On September 13, 1775, Phipps inherited the title of Baron Mulgrave and the dignity of Ireland. In 1776-1780, he was a member of parliament from Huntingdon County. At the same time he was appointed Lord of the Admiralty.
He continued service in the fleet. In 1778–1781 - captain of the 74-gun battleship "Brave". July 27, 1778 in battle near the island of Uessan attacked the French battleship "Paris", but did not act decisively, which allowed the French ship to leave. Returning to England, he appeared before a court martial, but Admiral Hugh Palliser spoke in his defense. January 4, 1781 during a storm near Brest captured the French 32-gun frigate "Minerva". In the same year Phipps left the naval service.
In 1784–1790 - Member of Parliament for the District of Newark. In 1784–1789 and 1789–1791 - Treasurer of the British Army. May 8, 1784 Phipps was appointed Commissioner for Indian Affairs and one of the Lords of Trade and Plantations. In 1790 he was elevated to the dignity of Great Britain with the right to sit in the House of Lords. In 1791 he retired for health reasons.
He died in Liege, buried in the courtyard of the church of St. Osvald Leath, Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England.
Mountain height of 1015 m in the northern part Prince Carl forland Island. The coordinates are 78°38.3'N 10°58.0'E.
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