Varnek Alexander Ivanovich
outstanding Russian hydrograph, Arctic explorer.
Born in Petersburg. In
the family of Varneks, who lived on Vasilyevsky Island, were
artists, architects, literary critic. His
grandfather was a famous portrait painter, Professor Emeritus of the
Academy of Fine Arts Alexander G. Varnek (1782–1843, father was an
academician of architecture I. A. Varnek, who built houses,
hospitals and churches in the city on the Neva. In 1878, Varnek
graduated from the Maritime College and A midshipman began serving
in the Prince Pozharsky frigate, which was sailing abroad, and a
year later he was promoted to midshipman.
During the 1880–1882 Varnek
studied at the Maritime Academy, which he graduated from the first
category and was seconded to the Hydrographic Department.
In subsequent years, he made three round-the-world trips on the
Oprichnik clipper under the command of Captain 2nd Rank Ivashintsev
(1883–1886), on the frigate Minin under the command of Captain 1st
Rank Birrilev (1890-1892), on a gunboat “ Thundering ”under the
command of Captain 2nd Rank Roguli (1897–1898), participated in the
voyages of the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland. For
a major contribution to geographical science in 1894, the IRGO
awarded Varnek a silver medal in the department of mathematical and
In 1898–1901 in
the rank of Captain 2nd Rank, Varnek was an assistant to the Chief
of the Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition A.I.Vilkitsky ,
and in 1902 he replaced him in this post. Under
his leadership, the Pakhtusov steamer explored the southwestern
part of the Kara Sea and the shore of Fr. Vaigach The
composition of the crew "Pakhtusova" in different years included P.A.
Brovtsyn, K.P.Mordovin, N.V.Morozov, I.S.Sergeev,
A.V. Yanov . The
composition of the land group Sergeeva, produced in 1902, filming
the northern coast of. Vaigach,
was at that time in the rank of lieutenant in the Admiralty G.Ya.Sedov.
In 1902, Varnek presented new geographical names in the Kara
Gates Strait for approval by the IRGO: Brovtsyna
Island, Kozlyanin Island,
Mikhailov Island, Morozov
Island, Mordovina Island,
Shokalsky Island, Sergeev
Peninsula, Yanov Island,
Ragozin Island, Ostrov
After 1904, Varnek, moving away from direct participation in
Arctic research, was engaged in educational, organizational and
research work. Over
the years, he was an inspector at the classes of the Alexander
Lyceum, a member of a commission dealing with the organization of
hydrographic research and the creation of projects for Arctic ships,
a member of the Maritime Academy and a scientific council on
1904 he was elected a member of the commission A.I. Vilkitsky
on the development of the Northern Sea Route. The
commission also included outstanding researchers of the Arctic I.S. Sergeev, F.A.Mathisen, N.N.Kolomeitsev, Yu.M.Shokalsky, A.A.Borisov, L.L.Breitfuss and
the project developed by the commission, large-scale hydrographic,
hydrometeorological and ice surveys were proposed by three ship
groups at three sites simultaneously covering the entire Northern
Sea Route. The
implementation of the project had to be postponed due to the start
of the Russian-Japanese war. After
it was completed, in 1906 a new commission was formed, headed by
Admiral V.P. Verkhovsky
(later replaced by AI Vilkitsky). It
includes such eminent scientists and naval figures as A.N.
Krylov , A.V. Kolchak, F.K.Drizhenko,
I.P. Tolmachev, I.B.Spindler. The
main result of the commission’s work was the organization of the
famous Arctic Ocean hydrographic expedition of 1910–1915.
In 1912, Varnek left military service with the rank of lieutenant
general for the Admiralty and entered the Northern Shipping Company,
in 1914–1916. worked
in the central administration of the Marine Ministry.
In October 1917, the last, tragic stage in the life of Varnek
left Petersburg and lived on the estate of Moskalevka, and then in
Tuapse, suffering all the burdens of the Civil War in the Caucasus. After
the final establishment of Soviet power, Varnek decided without any
hesitation about emigration. At
any time, the royal general could be destroyed "without trial".
In March 1920, he and his family evacuated to the Crimea, in
October from Sevastopol went to Constantinople, then to Messina in
Sicily, in 1924 moved to France, lived in Lyon and Grenoble, and the
last two years in the “Russian House” in the town of Sen -Genev de
Bois, near Paris, where he died. He
was buried at the local
Outstanding services of Varnek to Russia are
marked by numerous awards, among which are the orders of St.
Stanislav 1 , 2 and 3 degrees,
St. Anne 2 and 3 degrees,
St. Vladimir 3 and 4 degrees
the west coast of the northern island of New Earth. He
called G.Ya. Sedov
the southern shore of the bay Tyrtov Chekina Bay on the Kara coast
of the northern island of New Earth. Named
in 1901 by A.A. Borisov.
the southwestern shore of the island Vaigach. First
described by a hydrographic expedition under the leadership of A.I. Vilkitsky. The
name was approved by the IRGO in 1902. The
bay got the name of the village ,
which appeared under the Soviet regime.