Vize Vladimir Yul'evich
outstanding meteorologist, oceanologist and historian of Arctic
research, Stalin Prize winner, corresponding member of the USSR
Academy of Sciences, Arctic explorer.
Born in Tsarskoye Selo in the family of a modest official and
graduating from the gymnasium, his father provided him with
maintenance for the period of his further studies before receiving
his specialty. Wiese
decided to become a chemist and went to Germany, where he entered
the University of Göttingen. However,
he soon became disillusioned with the choice of a specialty,
fascinated by the history of natural science and questions of
geographical discoveries. A
big, one can say decisive role in choosing his life path was played
by acquaintance with the book of F.
Nansen about the
expedition on the "Fram". Chemistry
was over. In
1910 he graduated from the Faculty of Philosophy of the University
of Göttingen and returned to his homeland with the firm intention of
devoting himself to polar research.
Upon returning to Wiese, he made two trips to the Kola Peninsula,
where he conducted ethnographic research.
In 1912 a message was published about the organization of the
expedition G.Ya. Sedov on
"St. Foka". Wiese
with his friend M.A. Pavlov
began to persistently seek admission to the membership. There
were many who wished, but Sedov chose these two novice scientists. He
was captivated by their enthusiasm, energy, and enthusiasm with
which they talked about their research on the Kola Peninsula. Wiese
was appointed a naturalist.
His main responsibility was the organization and conduct of
meteorological observations. During
Wise crossed the Novaya Zemlya along the northernmost latitude of
that time and surveyed the Kara coast. On
Franz Josef Land, he conducted meteorological and magnetic
the onset of daylight I spent several toboggan routes, specifying
the position of several small islands east of the wintering site, Hooker
Island and giving
them a physical-geographical description. In
addition, if possible, he conducted a study of glaciers and
collected a collection of polar plants. The expedition of Sedov gave
a great experience of field research in the Arctic. Vize
was planned by Sedov as the fourth participant in his expedition to
the pole. At
the last moment, Sedov left him, not wanting to disrupt scientific
Dead Seal Island. In
the fog Roubini rock. It
is mapped to the Vize in 1914
(photo by N. M. Stolbov)
After the revolution, Vize continued work in hydrometeorology. Since
1918, he worked on issues of oceanography and meteorology at the
Main Physical Observatory, and in his spare time he processed the
materials collected by him on the Sedov expedition.
World War, revolution and civil war forced the interruption of
research in the Arctic, but from the very beginning of the 1920s,
expeditions to the Barents-Kara sector resumed. Of
course, Vize could not stay away from them. In
the summer of 1921, as a leader of the oceanographic detachment, he
participated in the filming of the southwestern part of the Kara Sea
on the icebreaker Taimyr. Since
1922, Vize has worked in four organizations at once: the Main
Physical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences, the
Hydrographic Department, the Central Hydrometeorological Bureau of Mortrans, and the
State Hydrological Institute. He
was engaged not only in the Arctic, participated in numerous
scientific and scientific conferences and meetings, was a member of
several Soviet and international commissions, published fundamental
articles on oceanology, hydrology, ice and meteorological
After 1927, its activities became associated exclusively with the
moved to a permanent job at the Institute for the Study of the
In 1928, Wise was the head of the expedition on the icebreaker
ship "Malygin", which participated in the search for the team of the
dead airship U. Nobile "Italy". For
this expedition he was awarded the Order
of the Red Banner of Labor. Since
then, Wiese has become one of the most active participants in all
the research and development activities in the Arctic.
In 1929, at the post of deputy chief of the expedition, he
participated in a cruise on the icebreaker "G. Sedov”, the main purpose of which was the organization of a scientific
observatory on Franz Josef Land in the bay of the Quiet Island
In 1930, Wiese headed the scientific part of the expedition on
the “G. Sedov",
who explored the northern part of the Kara Sea. Earlier,
in 1924, on the basis of the analysis of the materials of the
expedition of G.L. Brusilov, he
predicted the existence of a vast enough land in the northern part
of the Kara Sea. During
the expedition to “G. Sedov" on the predicted place was opened a small island, which was named
after the soothsayer. But
Vize himself realized that an island measuring 30 kilometers by 15
kilometers could not have a significant impact on the drift “St. Anna". It
turns out he was wrong? But
of the Vize analysis was confirmed several years later, when
research showed that in the northern part of the Kara Sea stretches
a vast shallow water with the islands of Solitude, Wiese, Ushakov,
which affected the ice drift. He
could rightly be called raising the Vize.
The same expedition landed on the island
of Domashniy the famous
four of G.A. Ushakov,
which was to be put on the map of the archipelago Severnaya Zemlya.
In 1932, Wiese took part in the historic cruise of the
icebreaking ship “A. Sibiryakov”,
for the first time in a single navigation past the Northeast Passage
(Northern Sea Route). According
to the ice forecast, Wiese chose a route around the north of the
archipelago Severnaya Zemlya. The
prediction was correct. For
participation in this flight, Wise was awarded the Order
of Lenin. After
the voyage “A. Sibiryakov” was created Glavsevmorput and subordinate to him All-Union Arctic Institute. Vize
became deputy director of the institute R.L. Samoylovich on
In 1933, Wiese was elected a corresponding member of the USSR
Academy of Sciences, which was the official recognition of his
scientific achievements. In
the same year he led the expedition to “A. Sibiryakov,
which opened the islands in the eastern part of the Kara Sea.
In the summer of 1934, in the role of the deputy chief of the
expedition for the scientific part of Wiese, he participated in the
icebreaker campaign “F. Litke”,
which for the first time passed the Northern Sea Route from east to
west in one navigation.
Wiese was planned to participate in the drift of the SP-1 station
under the guidance of I.D. Papanin,
but did not pass the medical commission. He
was already 50 years old, and polar research does not pass without a
trace for health.
In 1936 he led the oceanographic work in the northwestern part of
the Kara Sea on the icebreaker ship "Sadko", and in 1937 in the
northern part of the Laptev Sea.
After 1937, Wise could no longer travel to the Arctic for health
concentrated all his strength on solving the most urgent problem for
the Arctic - the organization of long-term ice forecasts. He
took the initiative of organizing systematic air reconnaissance of
since 1928, he began to give scientifically based forecasts of the
ice cover of the Barents Sea, and then of other Arctic seas. Its
ice forecasts began to serve as the basis for the scientific and
operational service of navigation along the Northern Sea Route.
After the beginning of the war, among other major scientists,
Wise and his wife were evacuated to Krasnoyarsk, where the Arctic
Institute was transferred.
Returning to Leningrad in 1944, Vise became head of the
department of oceanography at Leningrad State University and for
several years combined teaching work with work at the Arctic
VO 20 line, house 11. Vise lived here in apartment
In 1946, he was awarded the Stalin
Prize 2 degrees for
research of the Arctic ice regime, completed by scientific work
"Basics of long-term ice forecasts for the Arctic seas" (1944). The
contribution of Vise to arctic historical science is great. His
fundamental work “The Sea
of the Soviet Arctic ”
is still very popular. In
1950, Wiese was awarded the Big
Gold Medal of the All-Union Geographical Society.
He was buried in Petersburg on the track of the geographers of
bridges of the Volkovsky cemetery: a granite stele.
An island in
the northern part of the Kara Sea. In
1930 the expedition on the icebreaker ship “G. Sedov"
opened and called.
the northwest of the island Bolshevik. Named
by cartographers in 1928.
the north of the island of Brady and the glacier on the island of
Greeley archipelago Franz Josef Land. Named
by Soviet hydrographs.
Cape and glacier on
the west coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. Named
in 1913 by G.Ya. Sedov.
the Bay of Well-being on the north-eastern coast of the northern
island of Novaya Zemlya. Named
in 1921 by participants of the hydrographic expedition of the Arctic Ocean on the
icebreaker "Taimyr" under
the direction of N.V. Rose
Rusanov Bay on the east coast of the northern island of Novaya
in 1925 by the Novaya Zemlya expedition of R.L. Samoylovich.