Voronin Vladimir Ivanovich 

Hereditary Pomor, the most illustrious polar captain, participant of ice trips that entered the history of Arctic exploration. 
He was born in Sumy Posad on the White Sea, already at the age of eight, with his father, took part in fishing in Murman, was a cabin boy on merchant fishing sailboats, went to Norway. He began to sail as a sailor in 1906, combining work with studies at the nautical school. He consistently passed the exams for the assistant captain, the captain of the small voyage, the navigator of the long voyage. In 1918, miraculously survived after the death of his ship, attacked and sunk by a German submarine. 
After the end of the civil war, Voronin, as captain of the steamer, participated in the Kara expeditions of 1920–1921. Based on the experience of these voyages, being a witness to the death of some ships, he expressed a number of important practical considerations on navigation in the Kara Sea. 
From 1926 he was appointed captain of the icebreaker steamer “G. Sedov”, which was used then in the conduct of hunting. Voronin considered hunting the best school for polar captains. 
In 1928, Voronin on "G. Sedov "took part in the expedition to rescue the crew of the airship "Italy". Their search area was located near Franz Josef Land. In August, Soviet sailors first landed on Alexandra Land. The distance traveled by the ship in this voyage was equal to the length of the Northern Sea Route. This is his first great voyage in the high latitudes of the Arctic. Voronin considered one of the most important. 
The following year, “G. Sedov" under the command of Voronin went to Franz-Josef Land with a government expedition led by O.Yu. SchmidtThey hoisted the USSR flag on Franz Josef Land and opened the Tikhaya Bay polar station on Hooker Island. This trip was set a record of free navigation in high latitudes: 82° 14' N. When summing up the results of the campaign, the expedition leader noted the great contribution of the captain to his successful completion. 
In 1930, the expedition under the leadership of Schmidt on "G. Sedov, led by Voronin, made a voyage to the northeastern regions of the Kara Sea, which had not been visited before. Four islands in the Kara Sea were discovered: Vize, Isachenko, Voronin, Dlinniy. On the Domashny Island, an expedition base was organized as part of G.А. Ushakov, N.N. Urvantsev, S.P. Zhuravlev and V.V. 
Khodov, which was to make an inventory of the archipelago Severnaya Zemlya.


Expedition to "G. Sedov" to Franz Josef Land. 1930

From left to right: R.L. Samoilovich, O.Yu. Schmidt, V.P. Savich, V.Yu. Vize, B.L. Isachenko, V.I. Voronin

(from the archive of G.A. Voitsekhovsky )


In 1932 an expedition led by Schmidt was organized on the icebreaker “A. Sibiryakov" under the command of Voronin. This expedition, which left Arkhangelsk on July 28 ,managed to reach the Bering Strait on October 1, thereby completing the first through-passage of the Northeast passage into one navigation. A screw was broken in the Chukchi Sea. Having shown persistence and resourcefulness, the sailors set sail and, using favorable wind and current, were able to achieve clean water. At the edge of the ice, they were met by the trawler “Ussuriets”, who towed “A. Sibiryakov" in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. 
The government, and perhaps even Schmidt himself, did not objectively analyze the experience of this voyage, which led to the unreasonable notion that the Northern Sea Route had already been mastered. For 1933, scheduled the flight of the ship "Chelyuskin", not adapted to swimming in the ice. In addition to navigating through in one navigation, the mission of the expedition was to supply the Soviet colony and change the composition on about. Wrangel, where for 4 years not a single vessel could break through. On board the "Chelyuskin" there were many women and two children (one child was born while sailing in the Kara Sea - Karina Vasilyeva). Due to poor health, Voronin did not want to go on this flight, but at the insistence of Schmidt he agreed. The history of the "Chelyuskin" epic is well known. Once in ice captivity in the Chukchi Sea, the ship was crushed by ice and sank on February 13, 1934. Voronin was the last to descend on the ice, and the last on April 13 was taken by plane from the ice camp.


On the island of Voronin. 2007

On the island of Voronin. 2007

After the "Chelyuskin" epic, Voronin commanded the "Yermak" icebreaker for three years. Having accumulated vast experience of navigation in the ice, he published a series of articles on ice navigation and called for other polar captains. He belonged to the idea of ​​creating a book on the tactics of navigation in the polar ice. 
Severe illness forced Voronin to stop the ice trips after 1939. The war found him in Leningrad, from where he was evacuated to Ulyanovsk. In such a difficult time for the country, the honored captain could not remain aloof from practical activities. He obtained a re-examination after receiving a certificate: “You can swim in the Arctic, you cannot catch a cold”. At the beginning of 1942, Voronin began military service in Arkhangelsk: he lectured, trained military pilots, and in the summer as a senior pilot participated in escorting warships along the Northern Sea Route. In the period 1943-1946 he commanded an icebreaker "I. Stalin".  
After the war, Voronin was appointed captain of the first Soviet Antarctic whaling fleet "Slava", which marked the beginning of the Soviet study of Antarctica. 
In 1948, he again captain icebreaker "I. Stalin" involved in the conduct of the Arctic navigation. The flight of 1952 ended tragically for Voronin. When escorting ships to the Laptev Sea during the night watch, “on October 12, he entered the navigator's cabin, took compasses to put a point on the map, but suddenly grabbed his heart, then his head, and slowly began to sink ... At the approach to Dickson on October 18 at 00 hours 45 minutes in the presence of the ship's doctor Ya.A. Volovikov, captain Voronin died as a result of hemorrhage in the brain".  So in his essay, Murmansk journalist Victor Prostikhin described this event. 50 of his 62 years Voronin gave the Arctic. 
The merits of Captain Voronin are marked by a number of labor and military government awards, incl. two orders of Lenin. His name are six objects in the Arctic and two in the Antarctic, it is assigned to the Arkhangelsk Naval School and the modern icebreaker. 
He was buried in Petersburg at the Shuvalovskoye cemetery: a stela of black marble, under the portrait the silhouette of the icebreaker “I. Stalin".  
Isle in the eastern part of the Kara Sea. Opened on August 21, 1930 and the name of the expedition on the icebreaker "G. Sedov". 
Cape in the east of the island of Salisbury archipelago Franz Josef Land. Named in the 1950s by Soviet cartographers. 
Glacier on the island Gukera arhipelago Franz Josef Land. Called by the expedition to the isebreaker steamer "G. Sedov" in 1929.


Voronin Bay

(photo by E.A. Korago)

Cove in the Bay of Russian Harbor on the west coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya.  The name is given by the expedition on the icebreaker steamer "G. Sedov" in 1930. 
The lip in the Black Bay and the bay in the Sakhanin Bay on the west coast of the southern island of Novaya Zemlya. 
Named the Northern Hydrographic Expedition in the 1920s.


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