Voronin Vladimir Ivanovich
Pomor, the most illustrious polar captain, participant of ice trips
that entered the history of Arctic exploration.
He was born in Sumy Posad on the White Sea, already at the age of
eight, with his father, took part in fishing in Murman, was a cabin
boy on merchant fishing sailboats, went to Norway. He
began to sail as a sailor in 1906, combining work with studies at
the nautical school. He
consistently passed the exams for the assistant captain, the captain
of the small voyage, the navigator of the long voyage. In
1918, miraculously survived after the death of his ship, attacked
and sunk by a German submarine.
After the end of the civil war, Voronin, as captain of the
steamer, participated in the Kara expeditions of 1920–1921. Based
on the experience of these voyages, being a witness to the death of
some ships, he expressed a number of important practical
considerations on navigation in the Kara Sea.
From 1926 he was appointed captain of the icebreaker steamer “G. Sedov”,
which was used then in the conduct of hunting. Voronin
considered hunting the best school for polar captains.
In 1928, Voronin on "G. Sedov
"took part in the expedition to rescue the crew of the airship
search area was located near Franz Josef Land. In
August, Soviet sailors first landed on Alexandra
distance traveled by the ship in this voyage was equal to the length
of the Northern Sea Route. This
is his first great voyage in the high latitudes of the Arctic.
Voronin considered one of the most important.
The following year, “G. Sedov" under the command of Voronin went to Franz-Josef Land with a
government expedition led by O.Yu. Schmidt. They
hoisted the USSR flag on Franz Josef Land and opened the Tikhaya
Bay polar station on Hooker Island. This
trip was set a record of free navigation in high latitudes: 82° 14' N. When
summing up the results of the campaign, the expedition leader noted
the great contribution of the captain to his successful completion.
In 1930, the expedition under the leadership of Schmidt on "G. Sedov,
led by Voronin, made a voyage to the northeastern regions of the
Kara Sea, which had not been visited before. Four
islands in the Kara Sea were discovered: Vize, Isachenko,
Voronina, Dlinniy. On
Island, an expedition base was organized as part of
G.А. Ushakov, N.N. Urvantsev, S.P. Zhuravlev and
which was to make an inventory of the archipelago Severnaya Zemlya.
In 1932 an expedition led by Schmidt was organized on the
icebreaker “A. Sibiryakov"
under the command of Voronin. This
expedition, which left Arkhangelsk on July 28 ,managed
to reach the Bering Strait on October 1, thereby completing the
first through-passage of the Northeast passage into one navigation. A
screw was broken in the Chukchi Sea. Having
shown persistence and resourcefulness, the sailors set sail and,
using favorable wind and current, were able to achieve clean water. At
the edge of the ice, they were met by the trawler “Ussuriets”, who
towed “A. Sibiryakov"
The government, and perhaps even Schmidt himself, did not
objectively analyze the experience of this voyage, which led to the
unreasonable notion that the Northern Sea Route had already been
1933, scheduled the flight of the ship "Chelyuskin", not adapted to
swimming in the ice. In
addition to navigating through in one navigation, the mission of the
expedition was to supply the Soviet colony and change the
composition on about. Wrangel,
where for 4 years not a single vessel could break through. On
board the "Chelyuskin" there were many women and two children (one
child was born while sailing in the Kara Sea - Karina Vasilyeva). Due
to poor health, Voronin did not want to go on this flight, but at
the insistence of Schmidt he agreed. The
history of the "Chelyuskin" epic is well known. Once
in ice captivity in the Chukchi Sea, the ship was crushed by ice and
sank on February 13, 1934. Voronin
was the last to descend on the ice, and the last on April 13 was
taken by plane from the ice camp.
On the island of Voronin. 2007
On the island of Voronin. 2007
After the "Chelyuskin" epic, Voronin commanded the "Yermak"
icebreaker for three years. Having
accumulated vast experience of navigation in the ice, he published a
series of articles on ice navigation and called for other polar
belonged to the idea of creating a book on the tactics of
navigation in the polar ice.
Severe illness forced Voronin to stop the ice trips after 1939. The
war found him in Leningrad, from where he was evacuated to
such a difficult time for the country, the honored captain could not
remain aloof from practical activities. He
obtained a re-examination after receiving a certificate: “You can
swim in the Arctic, you cannot catch a cold”. At
the beginning of 1942, Voronin began military service in
Arkhangelsk: he lectured, trained military pilots, and in the summer
as a senior pilot participated in escorting warships along the
Northern Sea Route. In
the period 1943-1946 he
commanded an icebreaker "I. Stalin".
After the war, Voronin was appointed captain of the first Soviet
Antarctic whaling fleet "Slava", which marked the beginning of the
Soviet study of Antarctica.
In 1948, he again captain icebreaker "I. Stalin" involved in the conduct of the Arctic navigation. The
flight of 1952 ended tragically for Voronin. When
escorting ships to the Laptev Sea during the night watch, “on
October 12, he entered the navigator's cabin, took compasses to put
a point on the map, but suddenly grabbed his heart, then his head,
and slowly began to sink ... At the approach to Dickson on October
18 at 00 hours 45 minutes in the presence of the ship's doctor Ya.A. Volovikov,
captain Voronin died as a result of hemorrhage in the brain". So
in his essay, Murmansk journalist Victor Prostikhin described this
of his 62 years Voronin gave the Arctic.
The merits of Captain Voronin are marked by a number of labor and
military government awards, incl. two orders
of Lenin. His
name are six objects in the Arctic and two in the Antarctic, it is
assigned to the Arkhangelsk Naval School and the modern icebreaker.
He was buried in Petersburg at the Shuvalovskoye
cemetery: a stela of black marble, under the portrait the
silhouette of the icebreaker “I. Stalin".
the eastern part of the Kara Sea. Opened
on August 21, 1930 and the name of the expedition on the icebreaker
the east of the island of Salisbury archipelago Franz Josef Land. Named
in the 1950s by Soviet cartographers.
the island Gukera arhipelago Franz Josef Land. Called
by the expedition to the isebreaker steamer "G. Sedov"
(photo by E.A. Korago)
the Bay of Russian Harbor on the west coast of the northern island
of Novaya Zemlya. The
name is given by the expedition on the icebreaker steamer "G. Sedov" in
The lip in
the Black Bay and the bay in
the Sakhanin Bay on the west coast of the southern island of Novaya
the Northern Hydrographic Expedition in the 1920s.