American statesman and military leader, the first president of the United States.
Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, USA, in the family of a planter. At the age of 11 he lost his father; brought up mainly by elder stepbrother Lawrence. Received home education, engaged in self-education.
From 1749, Washington worked as a land surveyor in Culpepper County. After the death of his brother in 1752, he inherited the estate of Mount Vernon. He was a major in the local militia, during the Seven Years' War he took part in hostilities against the French troops, during which he distinguished himself and was promoted to colonel. In 1758-1774 Washington was elected to the Virginia legislature. He criticized the colonial policy of Britain, promoted a boycott of British goods.
In June 1775, Washington unanimously elected the commander-in-chief of the army, which he led throughout the War of Independence in North America. Having created an army virtually from scratch, he went with it a long way from the siege of Boston, for which he was awarded the Congress a commemorative gold medal, before the surrender of the British troops at Yorktown. Only in 1783, after the signing of the Paris Peace Treaty, he resigned.
Based in Mount Vernon, Washington, however, remained in the focus of social and political life. In 1787, he headed the Constitutional Convention, which drafted the US Constitution.
The popularity and indisputable authority of Washington led to his election as president of the country, which he took on April 30, 1789, and in 1792 was unanimously re-elected for a new term. In this post, Washington sought to implement the constitution, contributed to the creation of government, laid the foundations of the political structure of the United States. Washington included leaders of opposing political groups — Republican T. Jefferson and federalist A. Hamilton — in their first government.
Hamilton’s programs aimed at stabilizing the financial and industrial development of the country, which differed from the Republican intentions, were adopted and started to be implemented. In its relations with the indigenous population, Washington relied on military force, forcing the Indians to cede many territories. In the course of speeches in 1794 by farmers in western Pennsylvania who were protesting against the government’s fiscal policy (“whiskey rebellion”), the president, without hesitation, stifled this first-ever challenge posed to state power.
In the field of foreign policy, Washington advocated US non-interference in the confrontation of European powers, issuing in 1793 the Neutrality Proclamation. A sort of testament to Washington was the "Farewell Message", published on September 19, 1796. In it, the outgoing president called on citizens to strengthen the alliance of states, not to undermine the foundations of the constitution and state system. Washington also bequeathed "to maintain peace and harmony with all countries," to develop trade relations with them, but to have "as little political ties as possible".
The last years of Washington’s life were spent in Mount Vernon with family and numerous visitors. The authority of the ex-president was claimed again during a sharp deterioration in relations with France in the summer of 1798, when Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the American army as lieutenant-general. Making a traditional detour on top of his possessions on December 12, 1799, Washington fell under rain and snow, caught a cold and died two days later. He was buried in Mount Vernon in a hastily built brick crypt.
A new mausoleum was built about thirty years later. The capital of the country, state, lake and island, mountain and canyon, many settlements, colleges and universities, streets and squares are named in honor of Washington.
In 1888 a magnificent monument (169.3 m high) was opened in the US capital Washington.
Cape in the southeast of the island of Ziegler in the archipelago of Franz-Josef Land. Apparently named in 1905 by the expedition A. Fiala.
Cape on the northwest coast of Greenland.
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