Evgenov Nikolay Ivanovich 
(15.08.1888–13.05.1964)


Hydrograph and oceanographer, Arctic explorer, doctor of geographical sciences. 
Born in the village of Dog Gorby Novgorod region in the family of a teacher of humanities in the gymnasium. Soon the family moved to Narva. Father wanted his son to enter the history department of St. Petersburg University, but his son dreamed of the sea. Having overcome the resistance of his father, having perfectly passed the entrance exams, having had difficulty passing a medical commission because of myopia, Eugene in 1902 entered the Petersburg Marine Corps. In 1907, he made his first overseas voyage on the Aurora cruiser, and a year later, as a member of the midshipman on the battleship Slava as part of a group of ships, he visited many European ports. In Sicily, Russian sailors participated in the rescue of victims of the devastating Messina earthquake, for which Eugene among the sailors in 1911 received a commemorative silver medal. The famous Russian polar explorer A.A. Bunge served as the flagship doctor on “Glory”. 
In 1909, Yevgenov graduated from the Marine Corps, receiving the first officer rank of midshipman. On the vessel “Bakan”, which was engaged in the protection of Russian territorial waters in the Barents Sea, in 1910 he first entered the Arctic. On Novaya Zemlya, an acquaintance with G.Ya. Sedov, who made a hydrographic survey there, and N.V. Pinegin. The first meeting with the Arctic left an indelible mark on his soul. In 1913, the young hydrograph accepted without hesitation an offer to join the Arctic Octan hydrographic expedition instead of the sick officer and participated in her famous subsequent campaigns. 
Lieutenant Evgenov, who passed his watch, and Lieutenant K.K. Neupokoev, who was taking the watch, was the first to see the outlines of Severnaya Zemlya on the Vaigach icebreaker in the early morning hours of September 3, 1913. During the wintering of 1914-1915 Eugene led meteorological observations, studied the evaporation of ice and water in natural conditions, refraction, auroras, tidal phenomena. According to his drawings, the mechanics of "Taimyr" produced an "underwater weather vane" to measure under-ice currents and equipped an ice vessel to observe sea level fluctuations. They carried out a thorough determination of the age mark established in North-West Taimyr. In addition to conducting scientific observations on the ship, in April Eugene headed a group that organized a food depot for the upcoming transfer of a part of the crew to the mouth of the Yenisei River, and filmed the coast of the Oscar Peninsula, in June, along with Lieutenant A.M. Lavrov and four sailors conducted an inventory of the banks of the hall. 
Gafner-Fiord.

Evgenov's activity on the expedition was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir of the 4th degree.

 

Personnel icebreaker steamer "Taimyr".

Among the officers (in white) are sitting: second left, A.N. Zhokhov, further B.A. Vilkitsky, L.M.Starokadomsky, rightmost A.M. Lavrov. Stand in the center of  D.R. Antsev, second right N.I. Eugenov. 1914

(from the archive of N.I. Evgenov)


After the expedition was completed, Eugene served as a senior officer on the destroyer Orpheus. For participation in hostilities, he was awarded three orders. In April 1917, he was elected a deputy to the Union of Naval Officers of Revel. In October 1917, he took part in moonsund battles on the destroyer "Captain Izylmetiev." 
After demobilization in February 1918, Yevgenov with his comrade on the hydrographic expedition  A.G. Nikolsky went to the Far East. They decided to wait out the troubled time away from the capital. From Vladivostok, the friends managed to move to the United States, where the Russian consulate received an offer to study the archive of the former Maritime Ministry. In the first half of 1919, Eugene was recalled by the Kolchak government and appointed head of the geodesic department of the hydrographic department of the Marine Ministry under the Kolchak government in Omsk. At the end of 1919 he was arrested in Irkutsk, but in the absence of corpus delicti in February 1920, he was released by order of the Irkutsk Revolutionary Committee. 
In 1920–1921 Evgenov participated in the first Soviet Arctic expedition on the hydrographic description estuaries of the Lena and Olenek first as a deputy, and after illness and care, F.A. Mathisen - the chief. The main result of this expedition, the leading roles in which, besides Evgenov, were played by such high-quality hydrographs as P.K. Khmiznikov, I.P. Ispolatov, Yu.D. Chirikhin, the atlas of the Lena delta with Tiksi bay and the atlas of Lena below Yakutsk appeared. 
In 1924, on the Azimuth vessel, Eugene carried out hydrographic work off the west coast of Novaya Zemlya. In the same year, for his scientific achievements, he was awarded a small gold medal of the Russian Geographical Society. 
In the period 1926-1931 Eugene headed the sea part of the Kara expeditions exchanges, which played a huge role in the development of the Northern Sea Route. The result of his scientific activity in the western sector of the Arctic was the “Lotsiya of the Kara Sea and New Earth”. This work received the highest rating from experts.K.M. Deryugin considered it "not only the first lot of this region, but also the first lot of a scientific nature, not comparable with the ones like simple navigational aids".

 

Participants of the Kara expedition of 1929 on the "Krasin"

From left to right: M.I. Shevelev, E.P. Puyshe, Afanasyev, N.I. Eugenov

G.Y. Wangenheim, M.I. Sorokin

(from the archive of N.I. Evgenov)


In 1932, the government decided to create the Northeast polar expedition of the People's Commissariat of Water, which was to dramatically increase the volume of sea transportation from Vladivostok to the eastern sector of the Arctic. For the best use of the experience of the Kara expeditions, the head of the new expedition was appointed Eugene. In 1932-1933 he headed a caravan of ships transporting cargo from Vladivostok to Kolyma, wintered in the Chaun Bay of the East Siberian Sea. 
After successful bezimosvochnogo flight icebreaking steamer "A. Sibiryakov” along the Arctic coast of Russia was created the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, whose task was to organize the commercial operation of this route. The solution to this problem was impossible without the creation of reliable hydrographic support. In 1933, the most highly experienced Arctic hydrograph Eugene became Deputy Head of the Hydrographic Department of the GUSMP and held this position until 1938, combining administrative work with active expeditionary activity. 
In 1934, he supervised research at the "Krasin" icebreaker, who shot Wrangel Island A.I. Mineev and those who have taken the products of the five-year fishing - skins more than two thousand foxes and six hundred bears. The expedition carried out large-scale hydrological work in the Long Strait and a land survey of Herald Island, carried out geological work on it, and made an important contribution to the study of the Chukchi Sea and the adjacent part of the East Siberian Sea. 
In 1935, Eugenov participated as a hydrograph in the First High-latitude Expedition, and in 1937–1938. headed the scientific work in the period of the drift of ice-breaking ships “Sadko”, “G. Sedov" and "Malygin". In total, he accomplished in the Arctic more than twenty voyages. He perfectly knew the route of the Northern Sea Route and was considered the leading polar pilot. On his initiative for the first time in the practice of the Arctic navigation was carried out ship and aerial ice reconnaissance. 
In 1938, Eugene was arrested and sent to the camp. He remembered the origin, cooperation with Kolchak, friendly relations with the emigrated officers-hydrographs. At first he worked at the logging, and then became an observer at the weather station in Kotlas, giving predictions about the opening of the northern rivers. 
At the end of the war Eugene during 1947-1951 was a professor at the Department of Oceanology of the Leningrad Hydrometeorological Institute, and then until 1961 he worked as a senior researcher at the Leningrad branch of the State Oceanographic Institute. 
Huge work was done by Eugene on the collection, processing and publication of the materials of the Arctic Ocean hydrographic expedition. The First World War, the revolution, the civil war did not allow it to be done in time. The expedition materials spread all over the country, there was a real threat of their irretrievable loss. This most important work of Eugene began in 1953; By 1957, the bulk of the materials found by him were collected in the Geographical Society of the USSR, of which Eugene was a member since 1916, and in 1960 they were prepared for publication. However, as a result of bureaucratic delays, the publication, and even then in a sharply abbreviated form, was possible only after his death in 1985. 
Eugene died in St. Petersburg and was buried in the Serafimov cemetery: a modest marble stele depicts a map of Severnaya Zemlya, in the lower right corner of which is the silhouette of a ship and the date of the discovery of the archipelago. Initially crowned gravestone cross dashed.

From 1974 to the present, the hydrographic vessel “Nikolay Evgenov” has been operating in the Arctic, assigned to the Arkhangelsk port and owned by the Federal State Unitary Enterprise Hydrographic Enterprise of the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation (Russia).

 

Hydrographic vessel "Nikolay Evgenov"

  
Cape on the southeastern tip of Bolshevik Island. Opened and called in 1913 the Arctic Octan Hydrographic Expedition. 
Bay in Sedov Bay on the east coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. In September 1925, she called an expedition of the Institute for the Study of the North on the Elding schooner under the direction of R.L. Samoylovich. 
The strait separating Starokadomsky Island from the southeastern tip of Bolshevik Island - Cape Evgenova. Named by hydrographs in the 1970s – 1980s.

 

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