Zhuravlev Sergey Prokopevich *

Industrialist, member of the expedition G.A. Ushakov to the Northern Earth in 1930-1932. 
Zhuravlev was born into a large family in the village of Rogachevskaya, the Smotrokovsky volost, Shenkursky district, Arkhangelsk province. His father, in order to feed his family, was forced to constantly look for work on the side. He had many professions and graduated industrialist on Novaya Zemlya. A son followed in his footsteps. Another 14-year-old boy in 1906, he first came to Novaya Zemlya. His father took him for the summer cook. This went on for four years: in the summer on Novaya Zemlya, leading a life of deprivation, in the winter in his native village. It was impossible to be lazy: a simple lunch, collection of a fin, collection of bird eggs, participation in dressing up hides, fishing - this is an incomplete list of duties performed by the boy. Such a life hardened him, prepared him for severe tests, which turned out to be quite a few in his short life journey. 
In 1910, Zhuravlev went to Novaya Zemlya to the Bay of Pukhovy as a full member of the artel. For two years, Sergei fully mastered the wisdom of the industrialist. He learned how and where to trap on an arctic fox, how to make multi-vert crossings on dog sleds, how to get seal, beluga whale, to fish, etc. 
At the age of 20, Zhuravlyov married and went to Novaya Zemlya in the same artel with his wife and father. However, wintering ended in a complete break with his father. Zhuravlev did not go to the mainland because of his unwillingness to participate in the outbreak of World War I and got a job as an employee of a Nenets industrialist. 
Zhuravlev returned to their homeland in 1918. Only the acute rheumatism he received on Novaya Zemlya helped Zhuravlev to avoid mobilization to the White Army. However, this failed with the arrival of the Reds. He went to the Eastern Front and in the troops of V.K. Blucher participated in the defeat of Kolchak. 
The period from 1920 to 1924  Zhuravlev with his wife and three children spent on Novaya Zemlya. The need to educate children forced the family to move to the mainland, but every spring and summer Zhuravlev went to the seasonal cod fishery in Murman. 
In 1927, he again came to Novaya Zemlya and joined one of the artels formed here during the period of collectivization. However, the independent, sharp nature of Zhuravlev, his habit of relying only on himself and deciding everything himself quickly led to conflict with the authorities and a demonstrative exit from the artel. In 1929, he was removed from Novaya Zemlya. 
In the winter of 1929 - 1930 the Central Council of Osoaviahim organized the first all-Union dog-race, where Zhuravlev was invited. During the organization and conduct of the race, a fateful acquaintance of G.A. Ushakov, preparing the expedition to the Northern Earth. 
Of the many candidates for the post of musher and hunter-hunter, Ushakov without any hesitation chose Zhuravlev and never regretted this choice.


From left to right: Urvantsev, Ushakov, Zhuravlev, Khodov

Two years on Severnaya Zemlya were spent in months-long sleigh journeys. As a result, all the major islands of the archipelago were put on the map almost in the form in which we know them now. Zhuravlev participated in the description of the island of Komsomolets, as well as in all trips to the organization of food depots. It was here that all his best human and professional qualities emerged. The role of Zhuravlev-hunter is invaluable in providing the expedition with food for people and dogs. Arctic camping life was aggravated for him by the terrible news of the death of typhus of both his daughters, which were for him "like the light in the window". There was not a day for him not to talk about them several times. And Zhuravlev suffered this blow with extraordinary courage. For a while, Ushakov hid the terrible truth, choosing the most opportune moment, and informed the unfortunate father of the grief that had befallen him during the next route. Here's how, according to Ushakov, everything happened. 
“Gradually having prepared Zhuravlev for the truth about children, I far removed him aside and told about their death. Zhuravlev, squeezing his chapped lips to blood, wept, falling on his knees. Urvantsev approached us. Wanting to hide tears, Zhuravlev turned away and saw his sled team going under the ice. Dogs huddled at the edge of a thin ice floe submerged in water. Zhuravlev at the last minute seized the runners of the sleigh. With superhuman strength, he pulled them and puffy dogs. Expeditionary cargo with geological samples of tin and copper was saved. Zhuravlev somehow immediately broke the bitterness of loss. We surrounded the friend with friendly care”.  
The expedition to the Northern Earth gave much to Zhuravlev himself. Constant, close communication with such outstanding polar researchers as G.A. Ushakov and N.N. Urvantsev expanded the outlook of Zhuravlev, taught to live in a team, to subordinate his desires to the interests of his comrades. A great positive role was also played by the consciousness of his involvement in the fulfillment of the most important state assignment, his involvement in the largest geographical discovery of the 20th century. For participation in the expedition to the Northern Earth, he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. 
Immediately after returning from the Severnaya Zemlya, Zhuravlev took part in an expedition on the "Krasin" icebreaker to rescue people from one of the camp sites on the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 
In 1933, he headed the fishing winter in the Maria Pronchishchevaya Bay, the purpose of which was to study and develop the natural fishing riches of East Taimyr. On his “14-cylinder engines”, as Zhuravlev called dog sleds, he traveled around the coast of the Laptev Sea from Cape Chelyuskin to Nordvik, and also made several trips with geologists deep into the peninsula to the spurs of Byrranga Ridge. 
The last great hike Zhuravlev made in the winter of 1937. The ships of the trust “Nordvikstroy” because of the heavy ice situation in the Vilkitsky Strait could not make their way to the east coast of Taimyr, to the Kozhevnikov Bay and unloaded on Dixon and Igarka. From here geologists, geophysicists, and drillers had to travel by several sleigh trains, one of which was driving Zhuravlev, across the entire Taimyr Peninsula. The trip was incredibly difficult, in the central regions of Taimyr the frost reached 60 degrees. From the deprivation suffered, the once powerful health of Zhuravlev was shaken. The shipments were delivered before the wintering of the "Nordvikstroy", drilling at the salt dome was continued, but Zhuravlev’s health was getting worse. He complained of sore throat, weakness, lack of appetite. In the summer he did not get up. He was sent on a steamer to Arkhangelsk, but the ship was trapped by ice in the Laptev Sea and drifted. Icebreaker "Krasin" part of the people, including the dying Zhuravlev, was taken to Kozhevnikov Bay. He could neither speak nor eat, and only asked for water with signs. 
Zhuravlev died on November 26th. The blasts prepared a grave at Cape Portovoy eight kilometers from the village of drillers. A grave mound of frozen ground crowned with a metal pole with a five-pointed star.


Burial place Zhuravlev

Thus ended the life of this humble, but outstanding man, thirty years out of forty-five, who had been let go of him by the fate of the Arctic Circle. 
Cape in the west of the island is the Bolshevik Archipelago Severnaya Zemlya. 
Bay in the south of the island Bolshevik of the archipelago Severnaya Zemlya. 
Bay on the western shore of the island Komsomolets archipelago Severnaya Zemlya. The name was given by the cartographers of the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route in 1953.


Kut Bay Zhuravlev (Cove Otkrytaya)

(photo by EA Gusev)

River flowing into the Khatanga Bay. Named by topographers in 1937.

* The name of the father of Zhuravlev, Procopius Matveyevich, is an island in the Sakhanikh Bay in the south of the southern island of Novaya Zemlya.


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