Kostinsky Sergey Konstantinovich
astronomer, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the
USSR, founder of Russian astrophotography.
Born in Moscow. In
1890 he graduated from Moscow University, from 1894 until the end of
his life he worked at the Pulkovo Observatory. In
the 1920s he was also a professor at Leningrad University.
In the first years of his work at Pulkovo, Kostinsky investigated
changes in astronomical latitudes; He
proposed a method for calculating the curve of motion of the pole,
which was universally recognized. He
was one of the founders of astrophotography and photographic
astrometry, gathered a huge collection of photographs of the sky,
including photographs of individual sections of the sky, which
formed the basis of the so-called Pulkovo Glass Library. Comparing
them with photographs obtained at the Pulkovo Observatory later
allowed us to compile a catalog of proper motions of 18 thousand
elaborated a method for measuring the position of stars using
photographic plates and derived formulas for the reductions of these
In 1906 Kostinsky discovered the phenomenon of interaction
between two neighboring images on a plate of close binary stars
(Kostinsky phenomenon). One
of the directions of his scientific activity was the study of
latitude variability; he derived a formula for determining the
coordinates of the Earth's poles on the variability of latitude
Kostinsky participated in a number of expeditions, including in
1896 to Novaya Zemlya to observe a total solar eclipse and in
Svalbard to measure the arc of the earth meridian.
He died in Pulkovo, buried in the cemetery
of the Pulkovo Observatory.
the island of West Svalbard. Named
on "degree measurement".