Kotzebue Otto Evstafevich
Born in Revel, his father was the famous writer August Kotzebue,
killed in 1819 for political reasons.
In 1796, the boy was identified as a cadet in a land hull,
however, from childhood dreaming of the sea, in 1803 he volunteered
to the ship of the Russian-American company Nadezhda under the
command of I.F. Krusenstern. The
campaign of the ships “Nadezhda” and “Neva” (captain Y. Lisyansky)
in 1803–1806. was
the first voyage around the world Russian sailors.
Three-year service under the leadership of such a sailor as
Krusenstern, has become a magnificent marine and life school for
young Kotzebue. In
addition to his excellent professional skills, he absorbed the best
human qualities of a Russian naval officer, which consisted in
respect and care for sailors and a noble attitude towards the
inhabitants of those countries visited by navigators.
In 1808–1809 during
the war with Sweden, Kotzebue cruised between Aland and Finnish
skerries in the transport seized from the enemy, in 1811–1814. already
in the rank of lieutenant he commanded the Swallow yacht on the
In the next three years, Kotzebue sailed, which allowed him to
enter the cohort of outstanding Russian navigators. In
1815, on the recommendation of Kruzenshtern, he led a
round-the-world expedition on Rurik, equipped with funds from the
outstanding Russian statesman, Chancellor N.P.Rumyantsev. Its
task was to search for a passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic
along the northern shores of North America, the so-called Northwest
addition to this task, the expedition was instructed to survey the
poorly studied near-equatorial regions of the western Pacific Ocean. Detailed
instructions were received from Kruzenshtern and astronomer Horner. The
officers of the expedition, which consisted of only two people -
Kotzebue himself and Lieutenant G.S. Shishmarev had
to perform a huge amount of hydrographic and hydrological
observations, as well as measurements of terrestrial magnetism. In
addition, three researchers participated in the expedition - A.
Chamisso, I.-F. Eschsholz,
Vormsheld and the artist Horis, whose tasks included observing and
collecting materials on ethnography and biology.
They left the Kronstadt raid July 30, 1815. Around
the southern tip of South America, Cape Horn, they fell into a
severe storm, during which Kotzebue almost died, washed away by a
powerful wave. In
the South Pacific, a number of islands were discovered, named
Rumyantsev, Kruzenstern, Sviridov, Rurik, and others. After eleven
months on June 19, 1816, they arrived in Petropavlovsk, fixing the
damage and strengthening the hull of the ship, moved to the Bering
Ratmanov Islands were discovered in the strait, and to the north, on
the American coast, a long bay. Having
risen to 67° 30'N, we met the ice and turned south.
In winter, we explored the southern part of the Pacific Ocean,
went to rest and repair the ship in San Francisco, then visited the
Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands, discovered new islands, and filmed
them last year. During
the strongest storm on April 13, 1817, Kotzebue almost died again. In
a huge wave, he was thrown by the breast onto the deck and received
a heavy bruise, which had serious consequences for him and the whole
On June 29, 1817, they again went north, but, once in the cold
zone, Kotzebue felt a terrible pain in his chest and was forced to
the way home, a number of new islands were discovered. The
scientific results of the expedition were very significant. For
this voyage, Kotzebue received the rank of lieutenant commander and
the Order of St.
Vladimir, 4 degrees.
During the years 1819–1822 Kotzebue
was under Admiral Sviridov as adjutant for special assignments.
In 1823–1826 his
second round-the-world voyage took place on the vessel “Enterprise”. The
initial purpose of the expedition was to search for new lands, but
then they ordered to deliver the goods and protect the shores of
Russian America. This
voyage is also marked by a number of islands open along the road.
In just two round-the-world voyages of Kotzebue, 339 islands have
been discovered. And
although these are mostly small atolls, a precise determination of
their position played an invaluable role in ensuring safe
addition, Kotzebue corrected numerous errors in determining the
coordinates of the islands discovered by his predecessors.
Upon his return, Kotzebue received the rank of Captain 2nd Rank,
was again under Admiral Sviridov, commanded the ship "Imperator
Peter I" and the naval crew.
In 1828, he was dismissed for treatment, and in 1830, in the rank
of captain of the 1st rank, he was finally terminated due to his
The last years of his life he was engaged in agriculture, earning
in this field a great popularity among the landowners of Estonia.
After five months, Kotzebue passed away. He
was buried in
the village of Kose, located in the bend of the Pirita River,
Harju region of Estonia. His
grave is located near the old church of the XV century, to the
present time significantly destroyed. In
1959, she was taken under state protection. According
to a 1960 report, the family cemetery of the “round-the-world
navigator Otto Kotzebue” was restored.
of the Chukchi Sea
east of the Bering Strait. Opened
and named in 1816 by the Kotzebue expedition on the "Rurik".