Kotzebue Otto Evstafevich 
(30.12.1788–03.02.1846)


Outstanding Russian navigator. 
Born in Revel, his father was the famous writer August Kotzebue, killed in 1819 for political reasons. 
In 1796, the boy was identified as a cadet in a land hull, however, from childhood dreaming of the sea, in 1803 he volunteered to the ship of the Russian-American company Nadezhda under the command of I.F. Krusenstern. The campaign of the ships “Nadezhda” and “Neva” (captain Y. Lisyansky) in 1803–1806. was the first voyage around the world Russian sailors. 
Three-year service under the leadership of such a sailor as Krusenstern, has become a magnificent marine and life school for young Kotzebue. In addition to his excellent professional skills, he absorbed the best human qualities of a Russian naval officer, which consisted in respect and care for sailors and a noble attitude towards the inhabitants of those countries visited by navigators. 
In 1808–1809 during the war with Sweden, Kotzebue cruised between Aland and Finnish skerries in the transport seized from the enemy, in 1811–1814. already in the rank of lieutenant he commanded the Swallow yacht on the White Sea. 
In the next three years, Kotzebue sailed, which allowed him to enter the cohort of outstanding Russian navigators. In 1815, on the recommendation of Kruzenshtern, he led a round-the-world expedition on Rurik, equipped with funds from the outstanding Russian statesman, Chancellor N.P.Rumyantsev. Its task was to search for a passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic along the northern shores of North America, the so-called Northwest Passage. In addition to this task, the expedition was instructed to survey the poorly studied near-equatorial regions of the western Pacific Ocean. Detailed instructions were received from Kruzenshtern and astronomer Horner. The officers of the expedition, which consisted of only two people - Kotzebue himself and Lieutenant G.S. Shishmarev had to perform a huge amount of hydrographic and hydrological observations, as well as measurements of terrestrial magnetism. In addition, three researchers participated in the expedition - A. Chamisso, I.-F. Eschsholz, Vormsheld and the artist Horis, whose tasks included observing and collecting materials on ethnography and biology. 
They left the Kronstadt raid July 30, 1815. Around the southern tip of South America, Cape Horn, they fell into a severe storm, during which Kotzebue almost died, washed away by a powerful wave. In the South Pacific, a number of islands were discovered, named Rumyantsev, Kruzenstern, Sviridov, Rurik, and others. After eleven months on June 19, 1816, they arrived in Petropavlovsk, fixing the damage and strengthening the hull of the ship, moved to the Bering Strait. The Ratmanov Islands were discovered in the strait, and to the north, on the American coast, a long bay. Having risen to 67 ° 30 'N, we met the ice and turned south. 
In winter, we explored the southern part of the Pacific Ocean, went to rest and repair the ship in San Francisco, then visited the Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands, discovered new islands, and filmed them last year. During the strongest storm on April 13, 1817, Kotzebue almost died again. In a huge wave, he was thrown by the breast onto the deck and received a heavy bruise, which had serious consequences for him and the whole expedition. 
On June 29, 1817, they again went north, but, once in the cold zone, Kotzebue felt a terrible pain in his chest and was forced to return. On the way home, a number of new islands were discovered. The scientific results of the expedition were very significant. For this voyage, Kotzebue received the rank of lieutenant commander and the Order of St. Vladimir, 4 degrees. 
During the years 1819–1822 Kotzebue was under Admiral Sviridov as adjutant for special assignments. 
In 1823–1826 His second round-the-world voyage took place on the vessel “Enterprise”. The initial purpose of the expedition was to search for new lands, but then they ordered to deliver the goods and protect the shores of Russian America. This voyage is also marked by a number of islands open along the road. 
In just two round-the-world voyages of Kotzebue, 339 islands have been discovered. And although these are mostly small atolls, a precise determination of their position played an invaluable role in ensuring safe navigation. In addition, Kotzebue corrected numerous errors in determining the coordinates of the islands discovered by his predecessors. 
Upon his return, Kotzebue received the rank of Captain 2nd Rank, was again under Admiral Sviridov, commanded the ship "Imperator Peter I" and the naval crew. 
In 1828, he was dismissed for treatment, and in 1830, in the rank of captain of the 1st rank, he was finally terminated due to his frustrated health. 
The last years of his life he was engaged in agriculture, earning in this field a great popularity among the landowners of Estonia. 
After five months, Kotzebue passed away. He was buried in the village of Kose, located in the bend of the Pirita River, Harju region of Estonia. His grave is located near the old church of the XV century, to the present time significantly destroyed. In 1959, she was taken under state protection. According to a 1960 report, the family cemetery of the “round-the-world navigator Otto Kotzebue” was restored. 
Bay of the Chukchi Sea east of the Bering Strait. 
Opened and named in 1816 by the Kotzebue expedition on the Rurik.

 

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