Krasheninnikov Stepan Petrovich 
(31.10(11.11).1711–25.02(08.03).1755)


An outstanding Russian traveler, researcher of Kamchatka, academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. According to his biographer G.F.Miller, Krasheninnikov was “from among those who have neither noble nature, nor fortune are preferred by beneficence, but they themselves came into being by their qualities and service”. 
Born in Moscow in the family of a soldier of the Transfiguration Regiment. In 1724–1732 He studied at the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy. At the end of 1732, by the decree of the Senate of Krasheninnikov, among the 12 high school students, he was sent to the Petersburg Academy of Sciences to prepare for participation in the Second Kamchatka Expedition. The Academy selected five best students, including Stepan Krasheninnikov. In August 1733, as part of the “academic retinue”, he set off on his first journey, the Kamchatka Expedition, which lasted for 1733–1743. 
The studies of Krasheninnikov began in the summer of 1735 with the study of warm sources on the Onon River. At the beginning of 1736, Krasheninnikov visited and described the Barguzinsky jail, then examined the island of Olkhon on Baikal and reached the Verkholsky jail by direct taiga trails. 
From Irkutsk, an “academic retinue” rode horses to the headwaters of the Lena River, and from there went down the great Siberian river to Yakutsk. Krasheninnikov took part in the description of Lena, traveled up the Vitim and went to the Vilyui basin to inspect salt springs. After each trip, he gave detailed descriptions of his way in detailed reports. 
In Yakutsk, the Kamchatka expedition wintered, and then the most difficult part of the journey began - the study of Kamchatka. Referring to poor health, the academics refused to go, writing to St. Petersburg that Krasheninnikov alone would cope with the research of Kamchatka. 
In the summer of 1737, Krasheninnikov set off through Okhotsk to Kamchatka. After a month and a half, the caravan descended to the Pacific Ocean. Upon arrival in Okhotsk, Krasheninnikov began to study the tides, organized meteorological observations, put his diary in order, compiled lists of Lamut genera, studied the flora and fauna around the city. Before leaving for Kamchatka, he sent a report to Yakutsk in which he described a route from Yakutsk to Okhotsk. 
In October 1737, Krasheninnikov sailed to Kamchatka on a small ship, the Fortuna. 
During his stay in Kamchatka, being in the most difficult conditions, Krasheninnikov comprehensively investigated the peninsula with the help of local service people. He first discovered and described Kamchatka geysers, explored the inner areas of Kamchatka, visited Upper Kamchatka and Lower Kamchatka ostrog, compiled dictionaries of Kamchadal, Koryak, Kuril (Ainu) languages, tried to find out the possibilities of agriculture in Kamchatka and the prospects for its economic development. In 1740, Krasheninnikov sent Gmelin and Miller his compiled description of Kamchatka peoples and various collections. 
In September 1740, Associate of the Academy of Sciences Georg Steller and the astronomer Delille de la Creuer arrived in Kamchatka to participate in the navigation of Bering and Chirikov to the shores of North America. Krasheninnikov, having entered Steller’s disposal, crossed Kamchatka twice, accompanied by him, and only in February 1743, almost ten years later, a student of the Academy of Sciences, Stepan Krasheninnikov, returned to St. Petersburg. In his draft journal there are calculations of ways and roads: 25 thousand 773 versts across Siberia and Kamchatka. 
The peninsula researcher, along with other students - members of the expedition, was given an exam. The Academic Assembly, having established a great deal of knowledge in natural history and taking into account the good reports on the study of Kamchatka, decided to leave Krasheninnikov under NA to improve in the sciences.Two years later, he was recognized as an adjunct deserving, he began working in the Botanical Garden, and since 1747 he has been in charge of it. 
Krasheninnikov was invited to start developing materials for the study of Kamchatka. He was handed the manuscript of Steller, who died in 1745 in Tyumen when returning to St. Petersburg from the Bering expedition. 
In April 1750, Krasheninnikov was approved "in the Department of Natural History and Botany" as a professor at the Academy, two months later he was appointed rector of the academic university and inspector of the academic gymnasium. 
For several years, Krasheninnikov processed the materials of his research and prepared the book “Description of the Land of Kamchatka”, which in 1752 entered the printing house. Strenuous work and eternal need sooner undermined his health. He died in St. Petersburg and was buried in the cemetery of the Annunciation Church on Vasilyevsky Island, which was abolished in the 18th century. In 1988, the remains of Krasheninnikov were accidentally discovered and reburied at the Lazarevskoye cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery. "Description of the Land of Kamchatka" was published after the death of the author. This remarkable work has been translated into German, English, French and Dutch. For a long time he was the only source of knowledge about Kamchatka in European literature.

 

Peninsula Krasheninnikov


The peninsula in the south of Basova Bay on the east coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya and the cape on the peninsula. Cape was called by A.K. Tsivolka in 1835.The peninsula is named after a cape in the 1930s.

 

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