Crozier  Francis 
(16.08.1796-1848 ?)


English sailor, polar explorer. 
Born in Branbridge. As a volunteer I went to the navy. He served in the Pacific, on the Cape of Good Hope and other places. In 1812 he received the title of midshipman. 
Crozier participated in all three Arctic voyages of W. Parry: in 1821 on the Fury, 1824 and 1827 on the Hekle. In the last voyage he already had the rank of lieutenant. 
After several years of service in the English waters, Crozier was assigned to search for the missing whalers in the Devis Strait and the Baffin Sea. 
Upon his return, he was awarded the rank of captain 3 rank.

 

 

Francis Crozier House in Branbridge


From May 1839, Crozier commanded the famous ship "Terror" on the James Ross Antarctic Expedition, which lasted until 1843. 
In 1845, England organized a grand Arctic expedition aimed at finding the Northwest Passage. The perfectly successful ships of the Antarctic expedition Ross "Terror" and "Erebus" were given to her, the leadership of the then-elderly J. Franklin, who was already young, achieved leadership. The expedition was well equipped, it included experienced sailors, but most of them did not have polar experience. However, with such famous polar explorers as Franklin and Crozier at the head, she could well count on the success that everyone without exception expected of her. However, the matter, as is known, ended in an unprecedented tragedy for the Arctic. All 129 expedition members remained in the Arctic. 
The last time they were seen by whalers on July 26, 1845 in the Baffin Sea. 1846 passed, 1847 followed, and no news came from the expedition. The first concern at the end of 1846 was shown by the famous John Ross, but the Admiralty considered him premature and unreasonable. It was only in 1848 that the first search expedition was sent under the leadership of James Ross, after which the search and rescue expeditions followed one after the other. For the next few decades, any English, and not only, Arctic expedition had as its main task the search for Franklin ships. As they say, every cloud has a silver lining: The Canadian Arctic archipelago and the surrounding regions have been thoroughly investigated. A whole galaxy, first of all, English polar explorers became world famous thanks to the Franklin expeditions. 
In 1850, the first information arrived. Expedition G. Austin, together with the expedition E. Ommanney discovered traces of missing at the entrance to the  Wellington Strait on the small island of Beachy. It became clear that Franklin spent the wintering here in 1845 - 1846. Everything was still fine. The search continued, and as a result of the efforts of hundreds of people, among whom, first of all, F. McClintock, W. Hobson, J. Ray, C. Hall, F. Schwatk and others should be noted, it was possible to collect information about the expedition its horrible tragic end. 
After wintering at the entrance to the Wellington Strait, the Terror and Erebus went south through the Peel Strait to King William Island, at the northwestern tip of which they got up for the second wintering. On the northwestern tip of this island, in 1859, a member of the McClintock expedition, Lieutenant Hobson, found a written message left by the Franklinites, dated May 26, 1847, and signed by Lieutenant Gori.

 

King William Island

(space image)


By the time the message was written on the expedition, everything was in order, and Lieutenant Gori and his party were sent with some task. But in the fields of Gori's message, another entry was made in another handwriting, dated April 25, 1848: "The ships of Her Majesty's "Terror"and "Erebus"were abandoned on April 22, 5 miles north-north-west from this place where they were icebound since September 12, 1846. The officers and crew, totaling 105 souls, under the command of captain F. R. M. Crozier landed here at 69° 37'42"N and 98° 41'E. Sir J. Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and in total died the expedition has so far 9 officers and 15 team members”.  
F.R.M. Crozier, captain and art. Officer James Fitzjems, Captain Erebus. 
Below was a postscript: "And we will go tomorrow, 26, to the Fish River Bak". 
Thus, for the 11 months separating the two letters, tragic changes occurred on the expedition. Judging by the latest record, the surviving sailors moved south, and all were killed at different stages of this campaign of death. 
However, the ensuing in 1868–1869. the search for C. Hall suggested that the situation was not quite so. Eskimos from  King William  Island was told about a meeting in 1848 with a detachment of white people headed by a man whom they called Agluka. According to the description of the Eskimos, it was most likely Crozier. “Agluka persistently tried to talk with the Innuits, but could only say very few words ... His message about the ship crushed by the ice, and dying people was fully understood only later ... He said that he was going to Ivillik, i.e. to Repulse Bay, pointing in that direction .... The Inuit left Crozier and his squad, although they knew they were leaving the hungry people”.
Thus, Crozier did not go to the Great Fish River, as was said in his note, found in 1859 by Lieutenant Hobson, but to the east. 
McClintock suggested, supported by many, that Franklin and his companions were the first to discover the Northwest Passage. 
Residents of his native city Crozier in his honor erected a beautiful monument.

 


The island (Crozir) east of the island of Bathurst in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. 
Island (Krožir) in the Kennedy Strait between Ellesmere Island and Greenland. 
Island (Krozher) north of Ellesmere Island in the Lincoln Sea.

Cape (Francis Krozher) in the north-west of King William Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Named in 1859 by F. McClintock. 
Cape northwest of the Melville Peninsula in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 
Cape (Krozher) in the north of the Banks Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Cape ( Crozierpynten) in the northeast of the Ny-Friesland peninsula, West Svalbard islands. The coordinates are 79° 50'N 16° 30'E.

Strait (Krozher) between the islands of Prince-Patrick and Eglinton in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Opened in 1853 by Lieutenant J. Swords from the expedition of G. Kellett. 
The Strait (Crozher) between the islands of Bathurst and Little Cornwallis Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Cove (Krožir) on the southwest coast of Prince-Wales Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

 

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