Kruzenshtern Ivan Fedorovich 
(08(19).11.1770–12(24).08.1846)


Admiral, the first Russian round-the-world navigator. 
Born in the province of Estland, on the estate of Haggut near Revel (Tallinn) in a poor nobleman, quite a land family, where he was the sixth child.When the boy was fourteen years old, one of his friends advised his parents to identify him in the Naval Cadet Corps. Kruzenshtern was his pupil during the years 1785–1788: because of the start of the Russian-Swedish war, he was released ahead of schedule “for the midshipman” and immediately found himself in the epicenter of the hostilities. On the ship "Mstislav" under the command of Captain G.I. The Mulovsky young sailor participated in the battles of Hogland, Eland, Revel and Vyborg. 
In 1793-1799 Krusenstern served as a volunteer on the British ships in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, as well as in the South China Sea, was promoted to lieutenant commander. 
In 1799 and 1802 He presented the projects of round-the-world voyages for direct trade between Russian ports in the Baltic and Alaska. The first was rejected, and the second, somewhat revised, was approved by the Commerce Minister, Count N.P. 
Rumyantsev and approved by Alexander I, who provided the implementation of his own Krusenstern.

The expedition, consisting of two sailing sloops "Nadezhda" and "Neva", left Kronstadt on July 26 (August 7), 1803. The ship “Neva” was commanded by Y.F. Lisyansky. On board the "Hope" was headed by NP. Rezanov's embassy mission to Japan. As part of the team "Hope" were later become famous sailors M.I. Ratmanov, O.E. Kotzebue, F.F. Bellingshausen. The future historian of the Russian Navy, V.N. Berh, walked on the Neva. 

 

Estate I.F. Kruzenshterna manor Ass

(from the archive of A.V. Kruzenshtern)



Swimming was hard. In addition to the natural difficulties associated with the ocean trip, big problems arose because of the vagueness and uncertainty of the instructions given to Rezan. The latter considered himself the main expedition, the sailors, of course, could not allow the primacy of the land person. The conflict went so far that upon arrival in Petropavlovsk, Rezanov filed a complaint with the Governor-General of Kamchatka, Major General P.I. Koshelev. Koshelev's well-kept position helped to formally settle the conflict. The emperor was satisfied with this and did not give the matter further progress. 
From Europe, the ships went to the Canary Islands, crossed the equator and met Christmas off the coast of Brazil. As a result of the storm in the area of ​​Cape Horn, the vessels separated: Lisyansky examined Fr. Easter, and Kruzenshtern went to the Marquesas Islands, where the ships met. From the Hawaiian Islands, Lisyansky went to Russian America, took part in the liberation of the Sithyn fortress, captured by the Indians, and Krusenstern, unloaded on Kamchatka, delivered Rezanov's mission to Japan. Having stood for six months near Nagasaki, "Hope" in the summer of 1805 returned to Petropavlovsk. After the survey of Sakhalin, the vessel went back. 
In addition, the expedition made a serious contribution to geographical science. As academician K.M.Baer, she enriched "science with discoveries and research, which far stretched the limits of natural science and geography."

 

The plaque on the building of the Marine Corps of Peter the Great. Petersburg, nab. Lieutenant Schmidt, 17


Upon his return, Kruzenshtern was seconded to the port of St. Petersburg to create labor for circumnavigation. At the beginning of the Patriotic War of 1812, he donated to the people's militia a third of his fortune (1000 rubles); about a year as a member of the diplomatic mission traveled in England. His three-volume description of the world tour saw the light during 1809–1812. and was translated in seven European countries. Krusenstern was elected a member of academies and scientific societies in England, France, Germany and Denmark.

 

Monument I.F. Krusenstern on the Lieutenant Schmidt Embankment


A developing eye disease and unfulfilled relationship with the minister of the sea forced Krusenstern to ask for release from work; in December 1815, he was sent on indefinite leave, but did not cease vigorous activity. Until 1836 he compiled and published the Atlas of the Southern Sea with extensive hydrographic notes. During 1827–1842 Kruzenshtern, gradually rising in rank to full admiral, was director of the Naval Cadet Corps, initiating the creation of the institution of the highest officer class, later transformed into the Naval Academy. Many outstanding seafarers and travelers turned to him for support and advice. He was the organizer of the expeditions of Otto Kotzebue, Mikhail Vasilyev - Gleb Shishmarev, Thaddeus Bellingshausen - Mikhail Lazarev, Mikhail Stanyukovich - Fyodor Litke. Krusenstern is known as one of the founders of the IRGO. In 1873, in St. Petersburg, on the Neva Embankment opposite the building of the Marine Corps, he was erected a monument (sculptor I. N. Schroeder, architect I. A. Monighetti).

The merits of Kruzenshtern are awarded with the Orders of St. George 4 classes, St. Alexander Nevsky with diamonds, St. Vladimir of 3 degrees, St. Anna of 2 degrees. 
He died in his estate Ass Wesenberg County Estland province. 
He was buried in Tallinn Dome Cathedral. 
An island in the Diomede Islands group in the Bering Strait.

Cape on the coast of North America in the Beaufort Sea. Named in 1826 by J. Franklin. 
Cape and the lagoon north of Kotzebue Bay on the coast of Alaska in the Chukchi Sea. Opened and named in 1816 by O.E. Kotzebue.

The mountain north of the Admiralty Peninsula on the western coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya.Named in 1822 by F.P. Litke. 
Lake in the south of the peninsula Boothia in northern Canada.

Lip in the Kara Sea on the western shore of the Yamal Peninsula. Described and named in 1826 I.N. Ivanov.

 

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