Kruzenshtern Ivan Fedorovich
the first Russian round-the-world navigator.
Born in the province of Estland, on the estate of Haggut near
Revel (Tallinn) in a poor nobleman, quite a land family, where he
was the sixth child.When the boy was fourteen years old, one of his
friends advised his parents to identify him in the Naval Cadet
was his pupil during the years 1785–1788: because of the start of
the Russian-Swedish war, he was released ahead of schedule “for the
midshipman” and immediately found himself in the epicenter of the
the ship "Mstislav" under the command of Captain G.I.
Mulovsky young sailor participated in the battles of Hogland, Eland,
Revel and Vyborg.
In 1793-1799 Krusenstern
served as a volunteer on the British ships in the Atlantic and
Indian oceans, as well as in the South China Sea, was promoted to
In 1799 and 1802 he
presented the projects of round-the-world voyages for direct trade
between Russian ports in the Baltic and Alaska. The
first was rejected, and the second, somewhat revised, was approved
by the Commerce Minister, Count N.P. Rumyantsev
and approved by Alexander I, who provided the implementation of his
The expedition, consisting of two sailing sloops "Nadezhda" and
"Neva", left Kronstadt on July 26 (August 7), 1803. The
ship “Neva” was commanded by Y.F. Lisyansky. On
board the "Nadezhda" was headed by N.P. Rezanov's
embassy mission to Japan. As
part of the team "Hope" were later become famous sailors M.I. Ratmanov, O.E. Kotzebue,
F.F. Bellingshausen. The
future historian of the Russian Navy, V.N.
Berh, walked on the
Estate I.F. Kruzenshterna
(from the archive of A.V. Kruzenshtern)
Swimming was hard. In
addition to the natural difficulties associated with the ocean trip,
big problems arose because of the vagueness and uncertainty of the
instructions given to Rezanov. The
latter considered himself the main expedition, the sailors, of
course, could not allow the primacy of the land person. The
conflict went so far that upon arrival in Petropavlovsk, Rezanov
filed a complaint with the Governor-General of Kamchatka, Major
General P.I. Koshelev. Koshelev's
well-kept position helped to formally settle the conflict. The
emperor was satisfied with this and did not give the matter further
From Europe, the ships went to the Canary Islands, crossed the
equator and met Christmas off the coast of Brazil. As
a result of the storm in the area of Cape Horn, the vessels
separated: Lisyansky examined Pashy Island,
and Kruzenshtern went to the Marquesas Islands, where the ships met. From
the Hawaiian Islands, Lisyansky went to Russian America, took part
in the liberation of the Sithyn fortress, captured by the Indians,
and Krusenstern, unloaded on Kamchatka, delivered Rezanov's mission
to Japan. Having
stood for six months near Nagasaki, "Nadezhda" in the summer of 1805
returned to Petropavlovsk. After
the survey of Sakhalin, the vessel went back.
In addition, the expedition made a serious contribution to
geographical science. As
she enriched "science with discoveries and research, which far
stretched the limits of natural science and geography".
The plaque on the building of the Marine Corps of
Peter the Great. Petersburg,
embankment Lieutenant Schmidt, 17
Upon his return, Kruzenshtern was seconded to the port of St.
Petersburg to create labor for circumnavigation. At
the beginning of the Patriotic War of 1812, he donated to the
people's militia a third of his fortune (1000 rubles); about
a year as a member of the diplomatic mission traveled in England. His
three-volume description of the world tour saw the light during
was translated in seven European countries. Krusenstern
was elected a member of academies and scientific societies in
England, France, Germany and Denmark.
Monument I.F. Krusenstern
on the Lieutenant Schmidt's Embankment
A developing eye disease and unfulfilled relationship with the
minister of the sea forced Krusenstern to ask for release from work; in
December 1815, he was sent on indefinite leave, but did not cease
vigorous activity. Until
1836 he compiled and published the Atlas of the Southern Sea with
extensive hydrographic notes. During
gradually rising in rank to full admiral, was director of the Naval
Cadet Corps, initiating the creation of the institution of the
highest officer class, later transformed into the Naval Academy. Many
outstanding seafarers and travelers turned to him for support and
was the organizer of the expeditions of Otto Kotzebue, Mikhail
Vasilyev - Gleb
Shishmarev, Thaddeus Bellingshausen - Mikhail Lazarev, Mikhail
Stanyukovich - Fyodor
is known as one of the founders of the IRGO. In
1873, in St. Petersburg, on the Neva Embankment opposite the
building of the Marine Corps, he was erected a monument (sculptor I.
N. Schroeder, architect I. A. Monighetti).
The merits of Kruzenshtern are awarded with the Orders of St.
George 4 classes, St.
Alexander Nevsky with diamonds, St.
Vladimir of 3 degrees, St.
Anna of 2 degrees.
He died in his estate Ass Wesenberg County Estland province.
He was buried in Tallinn Dome
An island in
the Diomede Islands group in the Bering Strait.
the coast of North America in the Beaufort Sea. Named
in 1826 by J.
the lagoon north
of Kotzebue Bay on the coast of Alaska in the Chukchi Sea. Opened
and named in 1816 by O.E. Kotzebue.
The mountain north
of the Admiralty Peninsula on the western coast of the northern
island of Novaya Zemlya. Named
in 1822 by F.P. Litke.
the south of the peninsula Boothia in northern Canada.
the Kara Sea on the western shore of the Yamal Peninsula. Described
and named in 1826 by I.N. Ivanov.