Kruzenshtern Pavel Pavlovich
naval officer-hydrograph, grandson of the first Russian
round-the-world navigator I.F. Krusenstern,
son of P.I. Krusenstern
(explorer of the mouth of the Pechora, the Pechora Sea and the
Pechora Territory), explorer of the Kara Sea and the mouth of the
Born in Revel, from childhood he was brought up in the love of
the sea, long hikes, stories about which he often heard from his
grandfather's full strength.
In 1842, together with his mother, he left for Germany for 4
years, and on his return he entered Vyshgorod school.
At the age of 15, he first went to the White Sea on the father's
yoke, Ermak, where he himself would later sail to the Arctic. At
the age of 16, Kruzenshtern became a participant in long-distance
sailing on the Dvina military transport in
there, on a passing ship, he reached Ayan and then returned to St.
Petersburg via Siberia.
Krusenstern quickly advanced in service, participated in
hostilities in the Baltic, but he was attracted to the North. In
1860, on the Ermak schooner, he explored the Pechora Sea and tried
to pass through the Kara Gate to the Kara Sea. The
path turned out to be free, but later than the time of the year, the
shortcomings in maintenance made him turn back.
In 1862, his father appealed to the maritime ministry for
assistance in organizing an expedition to the Kara Sea, the purpose
of which would be hydrographic research and clarification of the
possibilities of reaching the mouth of the Yenisei River. The
need for this was motivated by the requirements of the development
of shipping to ensure the exchange of goods between Siberia and
was provided, and PP was appointed head of the expedition. Krusenstern.
On August 1, 1862, the yoke of Ermak departed from the village of
the Pechora and
headed north-east. Only
half a month later, waiting for storms and fogs, overcoming the
currents and ice accumulations in the Yugorskiy
Shar, travelers reached the Kara
far as the eye could see, it was clogged with ice. Further
movement continued mainly by the will of the current and wind. In
fact, the ship fell into ice captivity. Frosts,
heavy winds and snowfalls began. All
the time there were ice motions, the vessel got dents and holes, it
lay down on the left, then on the starboard. Krusenstern
understood that in the event of the death of the vessel, it would
not be possible to spend the winter on ice. On
September 9, he made a decision to leave the schooner and, taking
everything necessary, move to the shore. It
was possible to reach the coast only after a week of an exhausting
journey connected with the constant mortal dangers. Often
the changing wind then drove the ice to the shore, then carried them
off to the open sea. Finally,
on September 16, when the ice rallied the ice by the south-west
wind, the travelers made many hours of exhausting march and reached
the coast of the Yamal. They
crossed the last 100–200 meters of clear water on small pieces of
was no dry thread on them, it was possible to make a fire and dry
out only at dawn. Fortunately,
it turned out that the sailors landed near the camp of local
residents, and an hour later they were sitting at the hearth, and
the owners treated them with meat, cheese, hot sweet tea.
On the reindeer, the sailors set off south along the coast of the Gulf
of Ob, 12 days later they reached the Ob River, and after the
formation of the ice they crossed to
Obdorsk (Salekhard). Having
stayed in Obdorsk for 12 days, they moved on, almost died while
passing through the Urals, and only in early November reached the
starting point of the expedition - the Kuya village at the mouth of
the Pechora. Leaving
the members of the expedition there, Krusenstern on deer moved to
Arkhangelsk, and then moved to St. Petersburg.
He again sought the North, but was sent to the
For several years he sailed various ships, commanded a cannon boat
that was part of a squadron cruising off the Aland Islands, the
Vityaz corvette in the Mediterranean Sea, then hit the Aral Sea.
Severe tests were not in vain for his body, he fell ill with
severe rheumatism. His
participation in the rescue of the steamboat that had suffered
disaster in the Syr-Darya had finished. The
steamer was saved, but his health was completely undermined. In
addition to rheumatism, the lungs were damaged. The
operation made in the Yuriev University Hospital (Tartu) did not
died at the age of 37.
He was buried in Vaika-Maria, Estonia, in
the family section of the parish cemetery attached
to the Lutheran church.
the Kara Sea west of Middendorf Bay. In
1901, the Russian Polar Expedition named all the islands here. Now
the name is saved only for a group of three small islands.