Kruzenshtern Pavel Pavlovich 
(07.08.1834–08.08.1871)


Russian naval officer-hydrograph, grandson of the first Russian round-the-world navigator I.F. Krusenstern, son of PI Krusenstern (explorer of the mouth of the Pechora, the Pechora Sea and the Pechora Territory), explorer of the Kara Sea and the mouth of the Yenisei. 
Born in Revel, from childhood he was brought up in the love of the sea, long hikes, stories about which he often heard from his grandfather's full strength. 
In 1842, together with his mother, he left for Germany for 4 years, and on his return he entered Vyshgorod school. 
At the age of 15, he first went to the White Sea on the father's yoke, Ermak, where he himself would later sail to the Arctic. At the age of 16, Kruzenshtern became a participant in long-distance sailing on the Dvina military transport in Petropavlovsk-on-Kamchatka. From there, on a passing ship, he reached Ayan and then returned to St. Petersburg via Siberia. 
Krusenstern quickly advanced in service, participated in hostilities in the Baltic, but he was attracted to the North. In 1860, on the Ermak schooner, he explored the Pechora Sea and tried to pass through the Kara Gate to the Kara Sea. 
The path turned out to be free, but later than the time of the year, the shortcomings in maintenance made him turn back.

In 1862, his father appealed to the maritime ministry for assistance in organizing an expedition to the Kara Sea, the purpose of which would be hydrographic research and clarification of the possibilities of reaching the mouth of the Yenisei River. The need for this was motivated by the requirements of the development of shipping to ensure the exchange of goods between Siberia and Europe. Assistance was provided, and PP was appointed head of the expedition. Krusenstern.

 

Schooner "Ermak"


On August 1, 1862, the yoke of Ermak departed from the village of Kuya on the Pechora and headed north-east. Only half a month later, waiting for storms and fogs, overcoming the currents and ice accumulations in the Yugorskiy Shar, travelers reached the Kara Sea. As far as the eye could see, it was clogged with ice. Further movement continued mainly by the will of the current and wind. In fact, the ship fell into ice captivity. Frosts, heavy winds and snowfalls began. All the time there were ice motions, the vessel got dents and holes, it lay down on the left, then on the starboard. Krusenstern understood that in the event of the death of the vessel, it would not be possible to spend the winter on ice. On September 9, he made a decision to leave the schooner and, taking everything necessary, move to the shore. It was possible to reach the coast only after a week of an exhausting journey connected with the constant mortal dangers. Often the changing wind then drove the ice to the shore, then carried them off to the open sea. Finally, on September 16, when the ice rallied the ice by the south-west wind, the travelers made many hours of exhausting march and reached the coast of the Yamal. They crossed the last 100–200 meters of clear water on small pieces of ice. There was no dry thread on them, it was possible to make a fire and dry out only at dawn. Fortunately, it turned out that the sailors landed near the camp of local residents, and an hour later they were sitting at the hearth, and the owners treated them with meat, cheese, hot sweet tea.

The rescue


On the reindeer, the sailors set off south along the coast of the Gulf of Ob, 12 days later they reached the Ob River, and after the formation of the ice they crossed to Obdorsk (Salekhard). Having stayed in Obdorsk for 12 days, they moved on, almost died while passing through the Urals, and only in early November reached the starting point of the expedition - the Kuya village at the mouth of the Pechora. Leaving the members of the expedition there, Krusenstern on deer moved to Arkhangelsk, and then moved to St. Petersburg. 
He again sought the North, but was sent to the Baltic. For several years he sailed various ships, commanded a cannon boat that was part of a squadron cruising off the Aland Islands, the Vityaz corvette in the Mediterranean Sea, then hit the Aral Sea.
Severe tests were not in vain for his body, he fell ill with severe rheumatism. His participation in the rescue of the steamboat that had suffered disaster in the Syr-Darya had finished. The steamer was saved, but his health was completely undermined. In addition to rheumatism, the lungs were damaged. The operation made in the Yuriev University Hospital (Tartu) did not help. He died at the age of 37. 
He was buried in Vaika-Maria, Estonia, in the family section of the parish cemetery attached to the Lutheran church. 
Islands in the Kara Sea west of Middendorf Bay. In 1901, the Russian Polar Expedition named all the islands here. 
Now the name is saved only for a group of three small islands.

 

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