Laptev Dmitry Yakovlevich
sailor, Rear Admiral, member of the All-Union Military Cooperation. H.P.Laptev 's
Laptev came from an old noble family, whose representatives
faithfully served the Fatherland. One
of his ancestors was granted a patrimony near the Great Onions. The
estates of Father Laptev and his brother Prokofy — Father Kh. P.
Laptev — were located next door.
Rural childhood tempered the boy both physically and spiritually,
which was very useful to him in the profession of a sailor and a
polar explorer.The first literacy training, he, like all children of
petty nobles of the Peter the Great epoch, passed from a priest, and
in 1715 entered the Naval Academy, which, by decree of Peter I,
recruited noblemen from the northern provinces. This
institution gave the initial theoretical marine education to future
navigators and military officers.
He began service in the navy in 1718 as a midshipman. The
service he was given better than his brother. Two
years later he received the first officer rank of midshipman, five
years later he commanded the ship with the rank of non-lieutenant,
in 1731 became a lieutenant. Such
a quick promotion at the time testified to his high professional
served on the ships of the Kronstadt flotilla, sailing to the German
ports of Lubeck, Danzig, in 1730 on the frigate “Russia” sailed in
the Barents Sea.
Laptev's professional and human qualities made him worthy of
being included in the participants of the Great Northern Expedition,
where they selected experienced and ready for severe tests of
it was supposed to appoint him to the Bering-Chirikov or Shpanberg
detachment, but when in 1735 the plight of the East Lena detachment P.
clear, Bering decided to return the remnants of the detachment to
Yakutsk and create a new detachment under D.Ya. Laptev.
The section of the coast that was to be described by this
detachment had a much greater extent than the sections of the other
detachments of the All-Union Expedient. He
stretched from the mouth of the Lena to Kamchatka. It
should be noted that at that time, despite the well-known swimming S.I. Dezhnev,
still did not remove the question of a possible connection between
Asia and America. The
clarification of this was one of the tasks of Laptev. In
addition, he had to check the rumors about the existence of "great
land" to the north of Siberia. All
the work had to be done in two years. At
the disposal of the detachment was the bot "Irkutsk", transferred
from the detachment of Lacinius.
Even before the opening of Lena, Laptev sent 14 people for the
wintering of Lacinius, led by navigator M.
Shcherbinin, to help
the detachment’s remnants and prepare the Irkutsk bot. In
the summer of 1736, a detachment descended along the Lena through
the Bykovskaya channel to the sea on three planks with a load. Lip
Buor-Khaya was filled
with ice, and Laptev, leaving the plaques with a cargo in Neelova
Bay, reached the wintering of Lacinius at the mouth of the Kharauli
River, which flows into the Buor-Khai lip, on foot. Here
was the "Irkutsk". On
the boat, Laptev returned for cargo, but an attempt to go to sea
because of solid ice was unsuccessful. At
a meeting called by Laptev, according to the instructions, a
consilium of officers of the detachment decided to stay for the
winter, which was held in the lower reaches of the Lena. They
built five houses, thanks to a well-organized diet, in particular,
the use of decoction from the bark and pine cones, with scurvy was
From wintering Laptev sent Bering to Yakutsk a report and a
decision of the council on the impossibility of passing by sea from
Lena to Kolyma, since, according to the stories of local residents,
the fixed ice stretching to Cape
St. Nose is not
broken for decades. Focusing
on the then available maps, Laptev mistakenly believed that this
cape stretches far to the north to about 76° 20' N. Having
overtaken the bot to Yakutsk, Laptev went to Petersburg, where the
question of continuing the work of the detachments was decided. It
was decided to complete the work. It
was also stated that there were no insurmountable obstacles from
Lena to Kamchatka, since according to historical information Russian
vessels in the past had sailed from Lena to Anadyr. In
addition, Laptev, as well as the leaders of other detachments, was
instructed not to return to the starting points in the case of a
meeting with insurmountable ice, but to spend the winter at the
place of the stop, making an inventory by land. The
Admiralty College ordered the Siberian, Yakut and Irkutsk offices to
create warehouses with provisions and necessary equipment along the
way of the detachment.
During the whole of 1739, the sailor Aleksey Loshkin, sent by
Laptev before returning from St. Petersburg, described the coast
from the mouth
of the Yana to St. Nose and
to Alazei. In
1739, Laptev resumed navigation on the Irkutsk boat. The
detachment descended along the Lena and left the mouth to the east. The
ship managed to go around Cape St. Nose, the true position of which
Laptev became known thanks to the land survey of Loshkin, and
reached the mouth of the Indigirka. The
whole Indigirka, by order of Laptev, has already been described by
the surveyor N. Kindyakov, which allowed the bot to enter the
estuary without any risk and stand there for the winter. In
the winter of 1739–1740
the river Chrome. Thus,
by 1740 an inventory was made of the entire southeastern coast of
the sea, later called the Laptev Sea. Loshkin
was sent to Petersburg with a report to the Admiralty College.
In the summer of 1740, Laptev on the boat passed from the mouth
of the Indigirka to the mouth of the Kolyma, from there to the
Cape of Big Baranov and, failing to go around it, winterized in Nizhnekolymsk. In
1741, an attempt to go around this cape was also unsuccessful, and
Laptev again returned to Nizhnekolymsk.
In the autumn of 1741, on dogs and deer, through the Kolyma
Range, they moved to the Anadyr River, and in the summer of 1742, in
two large boats, they described it to the mouth.
After the completion of the inventory of Anadyr, the work of the
detachment could be considered complete. In
the autumn of 1742, Laptev returned to Nizhnekolymsk along with the
whole detachment and, leaving Irkutsk with the team there, returned
to Yakutsk in 1743, and from there, by order of A.I. Chirikov,
who led the expedition after the death of V. Bering, to St.
Petersburg with a report to the Admiralty Board on the work done. The
"Irkutsk" boat was handed over to the local authorities, the entire
personnel of the detachment was placed at the disposal of Chirikov.
Laptev was not limited to a survey report. He
wrote a memo on the state of the ethnic groups living in the extreme
North-East of Russia.
Even during the expedition Laptev was promoted to
captain 3 rank.Upon
returning to St. Petersburg, he served in the Admiralty Board, then
commanded the ships. In
1757 he was promoted to rear admirals and appointed junior flagship
of the Baltic Fleet. In
1762, "for old age and illness", he retired with the rank of vice
admiral and lived in a small estate near the Great Onions.
Buried at the local cemetery.
the mouth of the Kolyma River. Called
by Soviet polar explorers.
Tumatsky Bay of the Lena Delta.
The sea Title
suggested by Yu.M. Shokalsky and
approved in 1913 by the
Imperial Russian Geographical Society. It
was enshrined on Soviet maps by a decree of the CEC of the USSR on
June 27, 1935.Earlier it was called Tatarskoe, Lenskoe (on the maps
of the XVI - XVII centuries), Siberian and Arctic (XVIII – XIX
centuries), and in 1893 F.
Nansen called the sea
Laptev) between the mainland and Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island. The
name first appeared on the geological map of the Novosibirsk Islands
in 1906. The
entire circulation of the card died during the flood of 1924 in