Makarov Stepan Osipovich 
(27.12.1848(08.01.1849–31.03.(13.04).1904)


Russian naval commander, oceanographer, polar explorer, shipbuilder, vice-admiral. 
He was born in Nikolaev in the family of an ensign of the fleet, who was exhausted from soldiers. In 1865 he graduated from the naval school in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, in 1869 promoted to midshipmen. He served on the ships of the Pacific squadron, since 1871 - on the Baltic Fleet. During his service in the armored boat, the Rusalka investigated the problems of unsinkability of ships. 
In 1876  after transferring to the Black Sea Fleet, Makarov proposed to equip the Grand Duke Constantine steamer to transport mineboats to the parking areas of enemy ships for the purpose of their attack, which marked the beginning of the creation of torpedo-bearing ships. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878  he managed to implement this idea and carry out a number of successful attacks of Turkish ships with polemite mines, as well as for the first time to use a self-propelled mine-torpedo. In 1881, commanding the hospital steamship Taman, Makarov carried out hydrological work in the Pr. The Bosphorus, on the basis of which he wrote the work “On the exchange of waters of the Black and Mediterranean Seas”, was awarded the prize of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the small gold medal of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. Nine years later  in 1895 Makarov received another
Imperial Russian Geographical Society award, the Medal of Count Litke. 
In 1882–1886 he served in the Baltic Fleet. In 1886–1889, commanding the Vityaz corvette, Makarov made a voyage around the world, during which systematic oceanographic work was carried out, especially in detail in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean. These works were summarized by him in the work "Vityaz" and the Pacific Ocean". In 1890 he was appointed junior flagship of the Baltic Fleet, and in 1891 - chief inspector of naval artillery. In the 1890s, Makarov invented armor-piercing tips (the so-called "Makarov tips") for artillery shells, which significantly increased the penetration strength of the projectile. Since the end of 1894, he - the commander of the squadron of the Mediterranean Sea. 
In 1894–1896 Makarov made the second world tour, in 1896 he commanded a squadron of the Baltic Fleet. It combines the qualities of an excellent practice commander and a theorist of a naval combat theorist. 
In 1897  Makarov published the capital work “Discourses on Naval Tactics”, in which he outlined the basics of the steam armored fleet tactics, justified the need for interaction between artillery and mine-torpedo ships in battle, the expediency of using the wedge system in battle formations of armored squadrons, formulated the principles of mine action and anti-submarine defense.

Another area of  his multifaceted activities, which he devoted to the last years of his life, was the development of the idea of creating a powerful icebreaker to explore the Arctic. "No nation is interested in icebreakers as much as Russia". Makarov not only expressed and theoretically substantiated this idea, but also brought it to practical implementation, leading the construction of the world's first powerful icebreaker "Yermak", which became the flagship of the Russian, and then the Soviet Arctic fleet.

 

"Ermak" in heavy ice


In March 1899  at the "Yermak" Makarov moved from Newcastle to Kronstadt, overcoming the ice of the Gulf of Finland, then made a trip to Revel. In June-August of the same year, he made two Arctic test cruises on “Yermak”, penetrated north of Spitsbergen to 81° 21'N. In 1901  he sailed in the Barents Sea in harsh ice conditions, twice approached Franz-Josef Land and the north-west coast of Novaya Zemlya. 
Since 1899  Makarov - the main commander of the port of Kronstadt. In his work “Without Sails” he developed the issues of training and educating the fleet personnel in peacetime. 
After the start of the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905  Makarov was appointed commander of the Pacific squadron, successfully led the actions of ships in the defense of Port Arthur, but soon died on the battleship Petropavlovsk, which had been hit by a mine. Such is the evil irony of fate - he suffered from the weapon he developed himself.

 

Kronstadt Anchor square

 

The merits of Makarov were awarded the orders of St. George 4 degrees, St. Vladimir 4 degrees, St. Anna 2 degrees, St. Stanislav 1 and 2 degrees. 
In 1913, a monument of sculptor L.V. Sherwood was erected in Kronstadt Makarov. 
The island is among the islands of Tsivolka of the Nordensheld archipelago in the Kara Sea. Named in 1901 by E.V. Toll. 
The peninsula on the island Mezhdusharsky near the west coast of the southern island of Novaya Zemlya. 
Described and mapped by Soviet researchers no later than 1934.

Cape on the west coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. The name appeared as a result of the processing of materials taken by officers of the Yermak icebreaker, made here in 1901. 
Cape on Novaya Zemlya in the Russian Harbor Bay. Named in 1913 by G.Ya. Sedov. 
Mountain on the island of West Svalbard. Named in 1899-1901 by expedition on "degree measurement". 

Bay in the southeast of the island Hooker archipelago Franz-Josef Land. Named in the 1930s by Soviet hydrographs. 
Bay on the south-western coast of the island of the October Revolution of the Northern Land archipelago. The name was given by polar geologists in the 1950s. 
Lip on Novaya Zemlya near the island Mezhdusharsky. Described and mapped by Soviet researchers no later than 1934. 
A glacier (Makarova-Gervais) in the depths of the Gulf Unknown on the Kara coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. This is the common name for two closely related glaciers. Makarov Glacier faces the Kars side. The name was given by V.A. 
Rusanov in 1908.

Glacier in the north of the island of West Spitsbergen.

 

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