Makarov Stepan Osipovich
naval commander, oceanographer, polar explorer, shipbuilder,
He was born in Nikolaev in the family of an ensign of the fleet,
who was exhausted from soldiers. In
1865 he graduated from the naval school in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, in
1869 promoted to midshipmen. He
served on the ships of the Pacific squadron, since 1871 - on the
Baltic Fleet. During
his service in the armored boat, the Rusalka investigated the
problems of unsinkability of ships.
In 1876 after transferring to the Black Sea Fleet, Makarov
proposed to equip the Grand Duke Constantine steamer to transport
mineboats to the parking areas of enemy ships for the purpose of
their attack, which marked the beginning of the creation of
torpedo-bearing ships. During
the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878 he
managed to implement this idea and carry out a number of successful
attacks of Turkish ships with polemite mines, as well as for the
first time to use a self-propelled mine-torpedo. In
1881, commanding the hospital steamship Taman, Makarov carried out
hydrological work in the Pr. The
Bosphorus, on the basis of which he wrote the work “On the exchange
of waters of the Black and Mediterranean Seas”, was awarded the
prize of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the
gold medal of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. Nine
years later in 1895 Makarov received another
Imperial Russian Geographical Society award, the
Medal of Count Litke.
In 1882–1886 he served in the Baltic Fleet. In
1886–1889, commanding the Vityaz corvette, Makarov made a voyage
around the world, during which systematic oceanographic work was
carried out, especially in detail in the northern part of the
Pacific Ocean. These
works were summarized by him in the work "Vityaz" and the Pacific
1890 he was appointed junior flagship of the Baltic Fleet, and in
1891 - chief inspector of naval artillery. In
the 1890s, Makarov invented armor-piercing tips (the so-called
"Makarov tips") for artillery shells, which significantly increased
the penetration strength of the projectile. Since
the end of 1894, he - the commander of the squadron of the
In 1894–1896 Makarov
made the second world tour, in 1896 he commanded a squadron of the
Baltic Fleet. It
combines the qualities of an excellent practice commander and a
theorist of a naval combat theorist. In
1897 Makarov published the capital work “Discourses on Naval
Tactics”, in which he outlined the basics of the steam armored fleet
tactics, justified the need for interaction between artillery and
mine-torpedo ships in battle, the expediency of using the wedge
system in battle formations of armored squadrons, formulated the
principles of mine action and anti-submarine defense.
Another area of his multifaceted activities, which he devoted
to the last years of his life, was the development of the idea of
creating a powerful icebreaker to explore the Arctic. "No
nation is interested in icebreakers as much as Russia". Makarov
not only expressed and theoretically substantiated this idea, but
also brought it to practical implementation, leading the
construction of the world's first powerful icebreaker "Yermak",
which became the flagship of the Russian, and then the Soviet Arctic
"Ermak" in heavy ice
In March 1899 at the "Yermak" Makarov moved from Newcastle to
Kronstadt, overcoming the ice of the Gulf of Finland, then made a
trip to Revel. In
June-August of the same year, he made two Arctic test cruises on
“Yermak”, penetrated north of Spitsbergen to 81° 21'N. In
1901 he sailed in the Barents Sea in harsh ice conditions, twice
approached Franz-Josef Land and the
north-west coast of Novaya Zemlya.
Since 1899 Makarov - the main commander of the port of
his work “Without Sails” he developed the issues of training and
educating the fleet personnel in peacetime.
After the start of the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905 Makarov
was appointed commander of the Pacific squadron, successfully led
the actions of ships in the defense of Port Arthur, but soon died on
the battleship Petropavlovsk, which had been hit by a mine. Such
is the evil irony of fate - he suffered from the weapon he developed
The merits of Makarov were awarded the orders of St.
George 4 degrees, St.
Anna 2 degrees, St. Stanislav 1 and 2 degrees.
In 1913, a monument of sculptor L.V. Sherwood was erected in
The island is among
the islands of Tsivolka of the Nordensheld archipelago in the Kara
in 1901 by E.V. Toll.
The peninsula on
the island Mezhdusharsky near the west coast of the southern island
of Novaya Zemlya. Described
and mapped by Soviet researchers no later than 1934.
the west coast of the northern island of
Novaya Zemlya. The
name appeared as a result of the processing of materials taken by
officers of the Yermak icebreaker, made here in 1901.
Novaya Zemlya in the Russian Harbor Bay. Named
in 1913 by G.Ya. Sedov.
the island of West Svalbard. Named
in 1899-1901 by expedition
on "degree measurement".
the southeast of the island Hooker archipelago Franz-Josef Land. Named
in the 1930s by Soviet hydrographs.
the south-western coast of the island of the October Revolution of
the Northern Land archipelago. The
name was given by polar geologists in the 1950s.
Novaya Zemlya near the island Mezhdusharsky. Described
and mapped by Soviet researchers no later than 1934.
A glacier (Makarova-Gervais)
in the depths of the Gulf Unknown on the Kara coast of the northern
island of Novaya Zemlya. This
is the common name for two closely related glaciers. Makarov
Glacier faces the Kars side. The
name was given by V.A. Rusanov in
the north of the island of West Spitsbergen.