Markham Clements Robert
geographer, exploratory researcher, writer, cousin A.G. Markham.
Born in Stillingfleet near York in the family of a parish priest,
he was educated at Westminster and Cambridge.
Markham joined the Navy in 1844. His
service as a cadet and midshipman began aboard the Kollindwood, a
double-decked 80-gun ship assigned to the Pacific base. During
his four years of service, he visited Chile, Peru, Mexico,
California, Sandwich and Falkland Islands. A
short stay in Peru aroused in him a desire to further explore this
After serving on various ships of the Mediterranean base, Markham
received an invitation to participate in the G.
expedition sent in search of the missing ships of J.
commander on the ship “Help (Assistance)” was E.
Ommanni, comrades F.L. McClintock, S.
Osborne, R.V. Hamilton. In
1850 the Austin's ships reached Griffith Island in the Barrow
Strait, where they spent the winter. Markham
was the soul of the officer company, taking on the organization of
theatrical performances, lectures, and other entertainment that made
it easier to survive the hard polar night. In
the spring of 1851 he took part in sled search routes, which,
although they did not solve the task, gave important geographical
results.For this expedition Markham was awarded the Arctic Medal.
Upon his retirement immediately after returning from the
expedition, he began to carry out his creative plans during the
years 1852-1854. traveled
to Peru and the forests of the eastern chain of the Andes in order
to search for traces of the ancient Inca civilization. In
the years 1860–1862, Markham again found himself in Peru and Chile
to arrange transportation of quinna bark from there. During
these travels, he and his comrades were repeatedly exposed to mortal
danger, penetrating places where the European had not yet walked.
In 1854 Markham joined the Royal Geographical Society, in 1893
he became his 29th president, having spent this post the maximum
number of years compared to all other years - 12. From 1858 he was
secretary, and in 1889-1909 - President
of the Society R. Hakluyta, an English geographer of the XVI
In 1867, during the war with Abyssinia, Markham was appointed by
the government on a military expedition as a geographer, went
through the entire campaign, and participated in the attack and
capture of Magdala.
Markham has been to India many times, having done a lot to create
a cinchona plantation there.
All his life Markham did not lose interest in the polar regions
of the Earth. He
did a lot for the resumption of Arctic research, which abruptly died
out after the end of the search "Franklin" expeditions. Together
with his friend S. Osborne and other arctic veterans Markham made a
decisive contribution to the equipment of the polar expedition of J.
Ners in 1875.
Markham was one of the few polar explorers who supported the plan
proposed by F.
Nansen for reaching
the North Pole on a ship frozen into drifting ice and expressed
confidence in the happy outcome of the expedition.
By law, contemporaries considered Markham the father of Antarctic
research, the need for which he particularly actively promoted as
president of the Geographical Society. In
many respects thanks to his efforts, the expedition of R. Scott to
the South Pole was organized.
Markham successfully and fruitfully combined his research and
administrative activities with literary and editorial work. He
edited and translated 20 volumes of travel descriptions. Markham’s
50 publications include reports on his own numerous expeditions, as
well as biographies of mainly researchers and travelers. He
was an outstanding expert and authority on the Inca civilization,
edited early works on the Incas, in 1910 wrote the monograph "Inca
He died in London. He
lived a long life, escaped many deadly dangers, and died from the
shock resulting from burns during a fire in his own bedroom.
Awarded by orders
of the Bath and Christ.
St. Helena Church
He was buried in the cemetery
of St. Helens Church, Stillingfleet,
North Yorkshire, England.
near the coast of Khariton Laptev in the Kara Sea. Opened
in 1740 by the navigator of the All-Union High Schools D.
in 1893 by F. Nansen.
Markgam Island in the Kara Sea
(photo by EA Gusev)
near Melville Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Opened
and named in 1853 by a member of the expedition of G.
Markham) in the east of the island of George Land Archipelago Franz
Josef Land. Named
by the British expedition of F.
Clements-Markham) on the northeast coast of Ellesmere Island. Opened
by the expedition of J. Ners in 1876.
The Glacier (Clemens
Markham) on the west coast of Greenland south of Inglefield Land.
the west coast of Sturfjord, south-east of Torell Land, West
Spitsbergen Island. Coordinates 77º 00'N