Markham Clements Robert 

English geographer, exploratory researcher, writer, cousin A.G. Markham. 
Born in Stillingfleet near York in the family of a parish priest, he was educated at Westminster and Cambridge. 
Markham joined the Navy in 1844. His service as a cadet and midshipman began aboard the Kollindwood, a double-decked 80-gun ship assigned to the Pacific base. During his four years of service, he visited Chile, Peru, Mexico, California, Sandwich and Falkland Islands. A short stay in Peru aroused in him a desire to further explore this interesting country. 
After serving on various ships of the Mediterranean base, Markham received an invitation to participate in the G. Austin Arctic expedition sent in search of the missing ships of J. Franklin. His commander on the ship “Help (Assistance)” was E. Ommanni, comrades F.L. McClintock, S. Osborne, R.V. Hamilton. In 1850  the Austin's ships reached Griffith Island in the  Barrow Strait, where they spent the winter. Markham was the soul of the officer company, taking on the organization of theatrical performances, lectures, and other entertainment that made it easier to survive the hard polar night. In the spring of 1851  he took part in sled search routes, which, although they did not solve the task, gave important geographical results.For this expedition Markham was awarded the Arctic Medal. 
Upon his retirement immediately after returning from the expedition, he began to carry out his creative plans during the years 1852-1854. traveled to Peru and the forests of the eastern chain of the Andes in order to search for traces of the ancient Inca civilization. In the years 1860–1862, Markham again found himself in Peru and Chile to arrange transportation of quinna bark from there. During these travels, he and his comrades were repeatedly exposed to mortal danger, penetrating places where the European had not yet walked. 
In 1854  Markham joined the Royal Geographical Society, in 1893 he became his 29th president, having spent this post the maximum number of years compared to all other years - 12. From 1858 he was secretary, and in 1889-1909 - President of the Society R. Hakluyta, an English geographer of the XVI century. 
In 1867, during the war with Abyssinia, Markham was appointed by the government on a military expedition as a geographer, went through the entire campaign, and participated in the attack and capture of Magdala. 
Markham has been to India many times, having done a lot to create a cinchona plantation there. 
All his life Markham did not lose interest in the polar regions of the Earth. He did a lot for the resumption of Arctic research, which abruptly died out after the end of the search "Franklin" expeditions. Together with his friend S. Osborne and other arctic veterans Markham made a decisive contribution to the equipment of the polar expedition of J. Ners in 1875. 
Markham was one of the few polar explorers who supported the plan proposed by F. Nansen for reaching the North Pole on a ship frozen into drifting ice and expressed confidence in the happy outcome of the expedition. 
By law, contemporaries considered Markham the father of Antarctic research, the need for which he particularly actively promoted as president of the Geographical Society. In many respects thanks to his efforts, the expedition of R. Scott to the South Pole was organized. 
Markham successfully and fruitfully combined his research and administrative activities with literary and editorial work. He edited and translated 20 volumes of travel descriptions. Markham’s 50 publications include reports on his own numerous expeditions, as well as biographies of mainly researchers and travelers. He was an outstanding expert and authority on the Inca civilization, edited early works on the Incas, in 1910 wrote the monograph "Inca Peru". 
He died in London. 
He lived a long life, escaped many deadly dangers, and died from the shock resulting from burns during a fire in his own bedroom.

Awarded by orders of the Bath and Christ.

St. Helena Church


He was buried in the cemetery of St. Helens Church, Stillingfleet, North Yorkshire, England. 
Island (Markgam) near the coast of Khariton Laptev in the Kara Sea. Opened in 1740 by the navigator of the All-Union High Schools D. Sterlegov. Named in 1893 by F. Nansen.


Markgam Island in the Kara Sea

(photo by EA Gusev)

An island near Melville Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Opened and named in 1853 by a member of the expedition of G. Kellett. 
Gulf (Clements Markham) in the east of the island of George Land Archipelago Franz Josef Land. Named by the British expedition of F. Jackson. 
Bay   (Markham-Inlet, Clements-Markham) on the northeast coast of Ellesmere Island. Opened by the expedition of J. Ners in 1876. 
The Glacier (Clemens Markham) on the west coast of Greenland south of Inglefield Land.

Glacier on the west coast of Sturfjord, south-east of Torell Land, West Spitsbergen Island. Coordinates 77º 00'N 17º 00'E.


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