McClintock Francis Leopold 
(08.07.1819–17.11.1907)


British Arctic explorer. 
Born in Dundalk, Ireland, and was one of twelve children in the family of Henry McClintock, who served in the local customs. 
He began service in the navy at the age of 12 on a 28-gun frigate Samarang, which served in American waters. In 1845 he was promoted to lieutenant, distinguished himself in the rescue of the ship "Gordon" in Montevideo. 
McClintock played a prominent role in the search for the missing in 1845–47. expedition of J. Franklin, taking part in four search expeditions. 
In 1848–1849 in the rank of lieutenant, he accompanied James Ross to the Barrow Strait. Their squad, as well as the western squad of Moore and the southern J. Richardson, constituted the first expedition to search for Franklin. The search turned out to be unsuccessful, and in the spring of 1850 a new expedition was organized under the command of G. Austin to Prince of Wales Island. McClintock, in the rank of senior lieutenant, commanded the ship "Assistance". During the winter, he made an 80-day toboggan route with a total length of 820 miles, reaching Cape Dundas in the south of Melville Island , from which he saw Banks Island. The Austin expedition, together with the expeditions of E. De Haven and W. Penny , discovered the site of the first wintering of Franklin’s ships at Cape Riley and Beachy Island. Upon returning from the expedition in 1851, Mc Klintok was given the rank of captain of the 3rd rank. 
In 1852-1854 McClintock was part of a search expedition headed by E. Belcher. On a sleigh, he managed to go to the western part of the Canadian Arctic archipelago, where he examined and put on the map Prince-Patrick Island, Eglinton (separated by Krozher Strait) and partly Melville. 
After these expeditions, McClintock gained the fame of a beautiful polar explorer, one of the best experts on polar nature. The methods of tobogganing in the polar latitudes he introduced to Belcher's expedition were subsequently widely known and applied. 
During the 7 years that have passed since the start of the search for the expedition of Franklin, 19 search expeditions surveyed the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. A huge amount of money was spent, 8 ships were lost in the ice. 
Finally, in 1854  John Rey brought information from the Eskimos that they had seen a large number of dead white people in the south of King William Island and at the mouth of the Great Fish River. Ray bought from the natives many items belonging to the expedition of Franklin. The following year, the party of James Anderson and James Stewart, sent to the mouth of the Great Fish River, also found the items of the expedition, and in the coastal sand human bones, thus confirming the message of Ray. And now, when the search zone has narrowed to the area between Beachey Island and mouths of the Great Fish River, the government of England, which had sent so many expeditions to the infinite space of the Canadian Arctic archipelago, was satisfied with finding genuine traces of Franklin's expedition, paid Ray the promised reward and avoided funding the search. However, the public demanded their continuation. 
Once again, the initiative was shown by Franklin's wife, Jane, who, as early as 1849–1850, was able to connect the American government and the rich New York merchant Henry Grinnell, with the funds of which E. De Haven's expedition was organized, to the search. And now she did not give up. She hoped that her husband and his companions had taken shelter with the Eskimos and were probably alive. A part of the necessary sum was collected by the devoted woman by subscription, she compensated for the lack by selling her property. All funds received in the total amount of 2,000 pounds sterling were spent on the purchase of a screw yacht Fox with a displacement of 177 tons. Of the many captains who offered their services, she chose George Richards, but he could not accept this offer by receiving another official appointment. Then Lady Franklin commissioned the expedition to McClintock. It combined the vast experience of polar voyages with the dedication to which he served without interruption for 9 years. 
As a result of the organizational measures undertaken by McKlintock, Fox became, according to contemporaries, the “ideal of the Arctic ship”. The Admiralty, seeing at the head of the expedition such a brilliant polar explorer, changed its neutral position to this private enterprise and donated all necessary weapons and ammunition, rockets, saws, anchors, tools, accessories, building materials for the winter house, maps, books, devices, clothes , pemmican and others 
"If any success can still be achieved, McClintock is the person who will achieve it". 
The crew consisted of 25 people selected personally by McClintock. The commanding staff who went on an expedition without compensation included P. Hobson, who had been in the Arctic more than once, captain of the merchant fleet Allen Young, doctor and naturalist D. Walker. Lady Franklin gave McClintock complete freedom of action, indicating only that the priority actions should be the search for the living. 
The start of the expedition was unsuccessful. On July 1, 1857, they left Aberdeen, bought dogs in Greenland and went across the Baffin Sea to the entrance to the Lancaster Strait. Here the travelers were in trouble: “Fox” turned out to be the first ship of the Franklin expeditions, which, due to the difficult ice conditions, was unable to enter the first voyage in Lancaster Strait and walk to Beachy Island. I had to winter among ice fields far from the coast, being exposed to the mortal danger of being crushed by drifting ice. Eight months of ice captivity turned out to be painful in the first place from a moral point of view: the expedition could be completed, in fact, even without starting, they could not justify the hopes placed on them. Mainly north winds blew, driving the ship south. However, the winterers did not lose heart: they hunted, trained in the construction of the needle, tried to conduct scientific observations. Freed in late April, they went to Greenland for a little rest. 
In June 1858 they started everything all over again. The ice situation was no better than last year. We went from Melville Bay to the west and, maneuvering between ice fields, using the narrowest passages, constantly risking to be crushed, by July 11 we reached the north-west coast of the Baffin Sea at the entrance to the Johns Strait. A few days later reached the Lancaster Strait. 
On August 11  they approached Beachey Island, where McClintock installed a commemorative marble plaque handed over to Lady Franklin. August 16 through the Peel Strait went to  King-William Island, and precisely this moment can be considered the beginning of the search. At the very end of the strait was impassable ice. McClintock turned back and, having rounded the island of Somerset from the north, passed south through the Prince Regent Strait to the narrow Bello Strait , through which from the fifth attempt, having shown exceptional courage and skill, penetrated the Franklin Strait. Then the course was closed, and the travelers got up for the second wintering. 
The winter was extremely harsh, the frost reached 48°. McClintock organized three search groups. The first, headed by him, was to explore the mouth of the Great Fish River, the Hobson group — the western coast of the Boothia peninsula, the Young group — the coast of Prince-Wales Island and Somerset Island. "I believe that we will be able to successfully complete the search for traces of the Franklin expedition and the geographical exploration of North America — both of these tasks were not solved by previous expeditions". In late February - early March  they contacted the Eskimos in the reconnaissance route, found the knives and buttons of the missing expedition and received confirmation of the information transmitted by Rey in 1854. 
In this route, in 25 days, 360 miles traveled and mapped 120 miles of the western coast of Butiya Peninsula.

 

McClintock collects from the Eskimos Franklin expedition items


April 2, 1859 began the main campaign, which led to the long-awaited clue to the secrets of the expedition of Franklin. The hike was exceptionally difficult. “Until now, the temperature was low, reaching 30° below zero; at times sharp north winds blew, and a bright sun shone. The snow glittered blindingly, and although we wore colored glass, yet most of us suffered from eye inflammation. The skin on our faces blistered, lips and hands cracked. It seems that no one has ever been so disfigured by the combined action of the bright sun and exceptionally cold winds”.  
On April 20  they met the same Eskimos, who said that the inhabitants of King William Island had seen two ships: one sank in a deep place, the other was cast ashore. All the "white" went to the "big river", taking with him one or more boats. 
At Cape Victoria (Victory) McClintock and Hobson broke up. Since the western coast of the Boothy Peninsula was surveyed during the reconnaissance route, Hobson went through the Strait. James Ross straight to the northern tip of King William Island. McClintock descended just south of the harbor of Parry, located on the east coast of this island, and from there went south to the Great Fish River. On the way, we met Eskimos or their empty huts and found expedition objects everywhere. Purchased 6 items of silverware with the arms of Franklin, Crozier and other participants. The Eskimos reported that the ship is 5 days away, there are no masts on the ship and many books. The last time they visited him more than a year ago. 
On May 12  they reached the Great Fish River, surveyed the shores and the island of Montreal located near its mouth. Finding nothing, with a heavy heart turned back to King-William Island, which was reached on May 24th. We moved along the sandy shore and immediately stumbled upon a human skeleton with scraps of clothing. He was lying face down, some of the bones had been bitten off and carried away by animals. The deceased was a young man, of weak constitution, slightly above average height, judging by the clothes - a ship steward or officer's servant. It was the first "success" of McClintock.

 

McClintock's people dismantle the Guri in search of a message from Franklin


A small Hury was found 12 miles from Cape Herschel on the southwestern coast of the island. It contained a message from Hobson, who visited this place 6 days ago. He reported that he did not find the wreck of the vessel and did not meet the Eskimos, but on the Victory Cape on the northwest coast, he found a message about the fate of the expedition. The text was in six languages, on a printed form and contained a requirement for each finder to send it to the Secretary of the Admiralty. The message was dated May 24, 1847 and signed by Lieutenant Gori. From it followed that after July 1845, the time of the last meeting of the expedition with the whalers in the hall. Melville, "Terror" and "Erebus" across the Lancaster Strait reached the Strait of Wellington, the southern entrance to which was opened in 1819 by W. Parry. We examined 150 miles of this strait and returned to its entrance, getting up for wintering near the small island of Beachy. In 1846, they went south through the Peel Strait to King-William Island, at the north-western tip of which they embarked for the second wintering. By the time the message was written on the expedition, everything was in order, and Lieutenant Gori and his party were sent with some task. But in the fields of Gori's message, another entry was made in another handwriting, dated April 25, 1848: "The ships of Her Majesty's "Terror"and "Erebus" were abandoned on April 22, 5 miles north-north-west from this place where they were icebound since September 12, 1846. The officers and crew, totaling 105 souls, under the command of captain F. R. M. Crozier landed here at 69° 37' 42"N and 98° 41'E. Sir J. Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and all died the expedition has so far 9 officers and 15 team members”.  
F.R.M. Crozier, Captain and Senior Officer James Fitzjams, Captain Erebus. 
Below was a postscript: "And we will go tomorrow, 26, to the Fish River Baka". 
Thus, for the 11 months separating the two letters, tragic changes occurred on the expedition. 
Encouraged by the finds, McClintock increased his attention so as not to miss a single trace. 
On May 29 they reached the western tip of King William Island, which McClintock called Cape Crozier, and in the immediate vicinity of her found a boat with two skeletons and many expeditionary objects. The most interesting of them were taken with them.

 

McClintock discovers Franklin's skeletons


June 19 after the hardest transitions reached the "Fox", where they found returned five days earlier Hobson. He was so emaciated that he could not only walk, but also stand alone. Jung, who examined the Prince-Wales Island, had not yet returned, and on June 25, McClintock went in search of him. Two days later, we met Jung and his companion Harvey very weak and depressed by the natural absence of the findings of the missing expedition. However, the news of the success of other units quickly raised their spirits. The march of Jung and Harvey is of great geographical importance. For 75 days, they carefully examined and mapped the southern half of Prince-Wales Island and the opposite part of Somerset Island.

 

Prince of Wales Island

(picture from space)


The task of the expedition McClintock was solved, and polar explorers began to gather in the opposite way. McClintock had to take over the preparation and control of the car, as the driver Smith just before the departure died from an accident. Despite the fact that June and July were warm, it was not possible to get rid of ice for a long time.August came, and the prospect of the third wintering became more and more real. It was a serious threat, as the products were coming to an end. Solving the mystery of the expedition of Franklin, one could remain forever in the Arctic and not only not bring the clue to the mainland, but also create a new riddle. However, everything ended well, and wintering was avoided. August 9 "Fox" out of the  Bello Strait, went to the Lancaster Strait, which turned out to be free of ice. Favorable ice conditions were in the Baffin Sea. 
On August 27 they arrived at the port of Godhavn in Greenland, and on September 27 they saw the shores of England. 
McClintock and his comrades achieved their goal and fulfilled the promise made by Jane Franklin. As the newspapers of that time wrote, "... the amazing resilience and loyalty of a woman, supported by the unrelenting energy of skilled and devoted men, allowed us to complete the search for the long-lost prominent citizen of England ...". 
McClintock was one of the first among Western Arctic explorers to use dog sleds, having walked about 3000 km on ice on a sled. He introduced into practice such elements of the polar expedition movement as the division into auxiliary and main detachments and the uninterrupted delivery of food ahead. His experience, like the earlier experience of F.P. Wrangel, was later used on his expeditions R. Peary. 
For the Arctic expeditions McClintock was awarded the title of honorary citizen of London, he received the highest degrees of the main English and foreign universities, the time spent on Fox was counted as military service. The decision of the parliament members of the expedition was awarded a cash prize of 5,000 pounds sterling. 
In the following years, McClintock served in the North Sea, Jamaica, ran shipyards in Portsmouth, and held command positions in North America and Western India. In 1884, he retired with the rank of full admiral.

Awarded the Order of the Bath.

He died in London. Buried at Hanwell Cemetery, London.

An island in the south of the archipelago Franz-Josef Land. It was opened and named by Yu. Payer in 1874. 
Cape in the north of Salisbury Island archipelago Franz-Josef Land. Named in 1895 by F. Jackson. In 1896 F. Nansen, because of the uniqueness of the form of basalt outcrops, called it “castle”, but the name did not stick. 
Cape (Leopold-McClintock) in the north of Prince Patrick Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 
Cape in the Prince Patrick Island Satellite Bay in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 
Cape on the Ellesmere bank of the Kane Basin in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 
Cape (Admiral McClintock) in the northeast of Somerset Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 
Cape on the east coast of Greenland.

Cape (Francis) in the west of the peninsula Boothia in northern Canada. 
Cape in the north of the islands of the Royal Geographical Society in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Bay on the south coast of King William Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Gulf and glacier in the north of Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Opened and named in 1876 by the expedition of J. Ners. 
Strait between the islands of Victoria and Prince of Wales in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Opened in 1851  by S. Osborne, named in 1859  by A. Jung.

 

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