McClintock Francis Leopold
Born in Dundalk, Ireland, and was one of twelve children in the
family of Henry McClintock, who served in the local customs.
He began service in the navy at the age of 12 on a 28-gun frigate
Samarang, which served in American waters. In
1845 he was promoted to lieutenant, distinguished himself in the
rescue of the ship "Gordon" in Montevideo.
McClintock played a prominent role in the search for the missing
in 1845–47. expedition
Franklin, taking part in four search expeditions.
In 1848–1849 in the rank of lieutenant, he accompanied James
Ross to the
Barrow Strait. Their
squad, as well as the western squad of Moore and the southern J.
the first expedition to search for Franklin. The
search turned out to be unsuccessful, and in the spring of 1850 a
new expedition was organized under the command of G.
Austin to Prince of
Wales Island. McClintock,
in the rank of senior lieutenant, commanded the ship "Assistance". During
the winter, he made an 80-day toboggan route with a total length of
820 miles, reaching Cape Dundas in the south
of Melville Island ,
from which he saw Banks Island. The
Austin expedition, together with the expeditions of E.
De Haven and W.
Penny , discovered
the site of the first wintering of Franklin’s ships at Cape
Riley and Beachy Island. Upon
returning from the expedition in 1851, Mc Klintok was given the rank
of captain of the 3rd rank.
In 1852-1854 McClintock was part of a search expedition headed by E.
a sleigh, he managed to go to the western part of the Canadian
Arctic archipelago, where he examined and put on the map Prince-Patrick
Island, Eglinton (separated
by Krozher Strait) and
After these expeditions, McClintock gained the fame of a
beautiful polar explorer, one of the best experts on polar nature. The
methods of tobogganing in the polar latitudes he introduced to
Belcher's expedition were subsequently widely known and applied.
During the 7 years that have passed since the start of the search
for the expedition of Franklin, 19 search expeditions surveyed the
Canadian Arctic Archipelago. A
huge amount of money was spent, 8 ships were lost in the ice.
Finally, in 1854 John
information from the Eskimos that they had seen a large number of
dead white people in the south
of King William Island and at the mouth of the Great Fish River. Ray
bought from the natives many items belonging to the expedition of
following year, the party of James Anderson and James Stewart, sent
to the mouth of the Great Fish River, also found the items of the
expedition, and in the coastal sand human bones, thus confirming the
message of Ray. And now, when the search zone has narrowed to the
area between Beachey Island and mouths of the Great Fish River, the government of England,
which had sent so many expeditions to the infinite space of the
Canadian Arctic archipelago, was satisfied with finding genuine
traces of Franklin's expedition, paid Ray the promised reward and
avoided funding the search. However,
the public demanded their continuation.
Once again, the initiative was shown by Franklin's wife, Jane,
who, as early as 1849–1850, was able to connect the American
government and the rich New York merchant
with the funds of which E. De Haven's expedition was organized, to
the search. And
now she did not give up. She
hoped that her husband and his companions had taken shelter with the
Eskimos and were probably alive. A
part of the necessary sum was collected by the devoted woman by
subscription, she compensated for the lack by selling her property. All
funds received in the total amount of 2,000 pounds sterling were
spent on the purchase of a screw yacht Fox with a displacement of
177 tons. Of
the many captains who offered their services, she chose George
Richards, but he could not accept this offer by receiving
another official appointment. Then
Lady Franklin commissioned the expedition to McClintock. It
combined the vast experience of polar voyages with the dedication to
which he served without interruption for 9 years.
As a result of the organizational measures undertaken by
McKlintock, Fox became, according to contemporaries, the “ideal of
the Arctic ship”. The
Admiralty, seeing at the head of the expedition such a brilliant
polar explorer, changed its neutral position to this private
enterprise and donated all necessary weapons and ammunition,
rockets, saws, anchors, tools, accessories, building materials for
the winter house, maps, books, devices, clothes , pemmican and
"If any success can still be achieved, McClintock is the person
who will achieve it".
The crew consisted of 25 people selected personally by
commanding staff who went on an expedition without compensation
included P. Hobson, who had been in the Arctic more than once,
captain of the merchant fleet Allen
Young, doctor and naturalist D. Walker. Lady
Franklin gave McClintock complete freedom of action, indicating only
that the priority actions should be the search for the living.
The start of the expedition was unsuccessful. On
July 1, 1857, they left Aberdeen, bought dogs in Greenland and went
across the Baffin Sea to the entrance to the
Lancaster Strait. Here
the travelers were in trouble: “Fox” turned out to be the first ship
of the Franklin expeditions, which, due to the difficult ice
conditions, was unable to enter the first voyage in Lancaster
and walk to Beachy Island. I
had to winter among ice fields far from the coast, being exposed to
the mortal danger of being crushed by drifting ice. Eight months of
ice captivity turned out to be painful in the first place from a
moral point of view: the expedition could be completed, in fact,
even without starting, they could not justify the hopes placed on
north winds blew, driving the ship south. However,
the winterers did not lose heart: they hunted, trained in the
construction of the needle, tried to conduct scientific
in late April, they went to Greenland for a little rest.
In June 1858 they started everything all over again. The
ice situation was no better than last year. We
went from Melville
Bay to the west and,
maneuvering between ice fields, using the narrowest passages,
constantly risking to be crushed, by July 11 we reached the
north-west coast of the Baffin Sea at the entrance to the
Johns Strait. A
few days later reached the Lancaster
On August 11 they approached Beachey
Island, where McClintock installed a commemorative marble plaque
handed over to Lady Franklin. August
16 through the
Peel Strait went to
Island, and precisely
this moment can be considered the beginning of the search. At
the very end of the strait was impassable ice. McClintock
turned back and, having rounded the island
of Somerset from the
north, passed south through the
Prince Regent Strait to the narrow Bello Strait ,
through which from the fifth attempt, having shown exceptional
courage and skill, penetrated the
Franklin Strait. Then
the course was closed, and the travelers got up for the second
The winter was extremely harsh, the frost reached 48°. McClintock
organized three search groups. The
first, headed by him, was to explore the mouth of the Great
Fish River, the Hobson group — the western
coast of the Boothia peninsula, the Young group — the coast of
Prince-Wales Island and Somerset Island. "I
believe that we will be able to successfully complete the search for
traces of the Franklin expedition and the geographical exploration
of North America — both of these tasks were not solved by previous
late February - early March they contacted the Eskimos in the
reconnaissance route, found the knives and buttons of the missing
expedition and received confirmation of the information transmitted
by Rey in 1854. In
this route, in 25 days, 360 miles traveled and mapped 120 miles of
the western coast of Butiya Peninsula.
McClintock collects from the Eskimos Franklin
April 2, 1859 began the main campaign, which led to the
long-awaited clue to the secrets of the expedition of Franklin. The
hike was exceptionally difficult. “Until
now, the temperature was low, reaching 30° below
times sharp north winds blew, and a bright sun shone. The
snow glittered blindingly, and although we wore colored glass, yet
most of us suffered from eye inflammation. The
skin on our faces blistered, lips and hands cracked. It
seems that no one has ever been so disfigured by the combined action
of the bright sun and exceptionally cold winds”.
On April 20 they met the same Eskimos, who said that the
inhabitants of King William Island had seen two ships: one sank in a
deep place, the other was cast ashore. All
the "white" went to the "big river", taking with him one or more
Victoria (Victory) McClintock
and Hobson broke up. Since
the western coast of the Boothy Peninsula was surveyed during the
reconnaissance route, Hobson went through the Strait. James
Ross straight to the northern tip of King William Island. McClintock
descended just south of the harbor of Parry, located on the east
coast of this island, and from there went south to the Great Fish
the way, we met Eskimos or their empty huts and found expedition
objects everywhere. Purchased
6 items of silverware with the arms of Franklin, Crozier and
other participants. The
Eskimos reported that the ship is 5 days away, there are no masts on
the ship and many books. The
last time they visited him more than a year ago.
On May 12 they reached the Great Fish River, surveyed the shores
and the island
of Montreal located
near its mouth. Finding
nothing, with a heavy heart turned back to King-William Island,
which was reached on May 24th. We
moved along the sandy shore and immediately stumbled upon a human
skeleton with scraps of clothing. He
was lying face down, some of the bones had been bitten off and
carried away by animals. The
deceased was a young man, of weak constitution, slightly above
average height, judging by the clothes - a ship steward or officer's
was the first "success" of McClintock.
McClintock's people dismantle the Guri in search of a
message from Franklin
A small Hury was found 12 miles from Cape
Herschel on the
southwestern coast of the island. It
contained a message from Hobson, who visited this place 6 days ago. He
reported that he did not find the wreck of the vessel and did not
meet the Eskimos, but on the Victory
Cape on the northwest
coast, he found a message about the fate of the expedition. The
text was in six languages, on a printed form and contained a
requirement for each finder to send it to the Secretary of the
message was dated May 24, 1847 and signed by Lieutenant Gori. From
it followed that after July 1845, the time of the last meeting of
the expedition with the whalers in the hall. Melville,
"Terror" and "Erebus" across the Lancaster Strait reached the Strait
of Wellington, the southern entrance to which was opened in 1819 by W.
examined 150 miles of this strait and returned to its entrance,
getting up for wintering near the small island of Beachy. In
1846, they went south through the Peel Strait to King-William
Island, at the north-western tip of which they embarked for the
second wintering. By
the time the message was written on the expedition, everything was
in order, and Lieutenant Gori and his party were sent with some
in the fields of Gori's message, another entry was made in another
handwriting, dated April 25, 1848: "The ships of Her Majesty's
were abandoned on April 22, 5 miles
north-north-west from this place where they were icebound since
September 12, 1846. The officers and crew, totaling 105 souls, under
the command of captain F. R. M. Crozier landed here at 69° 37'
98° 41'E. Sir
J. Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and all died the expedition has
so far 9 officers and 15 team members”.
F.R.M. Crozier, Captain and Senior Officer James Fitzjams,
Below was a postscript: "And we will go tomorrow, 26, to the Fish
Thus, for the 11 months separating the two letters, tragic
changes occurred on the expedition.
Encouraged by the finds, McClintock increased his attention so as
not to miss a single trace.
On May 29 they reached the western tip of King William Island,
which McClintock called Cape
Crozier, and in the immediate vicinity of her found a
boat with two skeletons and many expeditionary objects. The
most interesting of them were taken with them.
McClintock discovers Franklin's skeletons
June 19 after the hardest transitions reached the "Fox", where
they found returned five days earlier Hobson. He
was so emaciated that he could not only walk, but also stand alone. Jung,
who examined the Prince-Wales Island, had not yet returned, and on
June 25, McClintock went in search of him. Two
days later, we met Jung and his companion Harvey very weak and
depressed by the natural absence of the findings of the missing
the news of the success of other units quickly raised their spirits. The
march of Jung and Harvey is of great geographical importance. For
75 days, they carefully examined and mapped the southern
half of Prince-Wales Island and the opposite part of Somerset Island.
Prince of Wales Island
(picture from space)
The task of the expedition McClintock was solved, and polar
explorers began to gather in the opposite way. McClintock
had to take over the preparation and control of the car, as the
driver Smith just before the departure died from an accident. Despite
the fact that June and July were warm, it was not possible to get
rid of ice for a long time.August came, and the prospect of the
third wintering became more and more real. It
was a serious threat, as the products were coming to an end. Solving
the mystery of the expedition of Franklin, one could remain forever
in the Arctic and not only not bring the clue to the mainland, but
also create a new riddle. However,
everything ended well, and wintering was avoided. August
9 "Fox" out of the
went to the Lancaster Strait,
which turned out to be free of ice. Favorable
ice conditions were in the Baffin Sea.
On August 27 they arrived at the port of Godhavn in Greenland,
and on September 27 they saw the shores of England.
McClintock and his comrades achieved their goal and fulfilled the
promise made by Jane Franklin. As
the newspapers of that time wrote, "... the amazing resilience and
loyalty of a woman, supported by the unrelenting energy of skilled
and devoted men, allowed us to complete the search for the long-lost
prominent citizen of England ...".
McClintock was one of the first among Western Arctic explorers to
use dog sleds, having walked about 3000 km on ice on a sled. He
introduced into practice such elements of the polar expedition
movement as the division into auxiliary and main detachments and the
uninterrupted delivery of food ahead. His
experience, like the earlier experience of F.P.
Wrangel, was later used on his expeditions R.
For the Arctic expeditions McClintock was awarded the title of
honorary citizen of London, he received the highest degrees of the
main English and foreign universities, the time spent on Fox was
counted as military service. The
decision of the parliament members of the expedition was awarded a
cash prize of 5,000 pounds sterling.
In the following years, McClintock served in the North Sea,
Jamaica, ran shipyards in Portsmouth, and held command positions in
North America and Western India. In
1884, he retired with the rank of full admiral.
Awarded the Order
of the Bath.
He died in London. Buried
An island in
the south of the archipelago Franz-Josef Land. It
opened and named by Yu.
Payer in 1874.
the north of Salisbury Island archipelago Franz-Josef Land. Named in 1895
Nansen, because of
the uniqueness of the form of basalt outcrops, called it “castle”,
but the name did not stick.
in the north of Prince Patrick Island in the Canadian Arctic
the Prince Patrick Island Satellite Bay in the Canadian Arctic
the Ellesmere bank of the Kane Basin in the Canadian Arctic
McClintock) in the northeast of Somerset Island in the Canadian
the east coast of Greenland.
in the west of the peninsula Boothia in northern Canada.
the north of the islands of the Royal Geographical Society in the
Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
the south coast of King William Island in the Canadian Arctic
glacier in the
north of Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Opened
and named in 1876 by the expedition of J.
the islands of Victoria and Prince of Wales in the Canadian Arctic
archipelago. Opened in 1851
Osborne, named in 1859 by A. Jung.