Born in Bergen. In
1858 he graduated from the university in Christiania (Oslo), and two
years later was left at the university scholar of astronomy.
In 1861 he was entrusted with the production of meteorological
observations, which largely determined the direction of his further
Prior to the organization of the Norwegian Meteorological
Institute, Mohn processed all the accumulated materials of
meteorological and magnetic observations conducted in Norway, which
was a necessary preparatory stage for organizing a meteorological
service in Norway. In
1866 after the establishment of the Institute, Mon became its
director and held this post during 1866-1913. Under
the leadership of Mohn Institute was one of the first among similar
institutions in other countries. His
efforts created a regular network of weather stations in Norway,
whose activities were constantly monitored by Mohn. He
is the author of numerous first-class meteorological works covering
a wide range of problems, from theoretical developments to training
manuals and observation instructions.
Mohn's contribution to the processing of meteorological
observations of many polar expeditions, including N.A. Nordenskiöld and
Nansen on the Fram.
The history of the Nansen expedition is closely related to the
name Mona. His
article on the discovery on the south-west coast of Greenland of
some items belonging to the participants of the American expedition
De-Long, published in 1884 in the Morgenbladet newspaper,
prompted Nansen to think about the possibility of reaching the North
Pole on a vessel frozen in drifting ice. Mohn
supported the idea of Nansen. He
organized the entire meteorological part of the expedition,
according to his instructions, all the instruments that had passed
the calibration at the Meteorological Institute were ordered, and
observations were made according to his instructions. Upon
return, the instruments were checked again, and all material was
transferred to Mona. Following
the processing of this rich material, Mon wrote an extensive work of
670 pages with 20 drawings and maps, which is an outstanding
scientific study. Using
this material, as well as observations of other polar expeditions
and stations lying between the pole and 60°N,
Mohn built new polar maps of isotherms and isobars. In
the history of the development of meteorology, his works occupied an
Based on indirect data, Mohn estimated the thickness of the
Greenland ice sheet (2000 m), which is rather close to the value
obtained in 1930 by A.
Wegener by theseismic method.
One of the most recent scientific works of Mohn was a discussion
of the results of observations of the expedition of R.
Amundsen in the
Mon was an outstanding organizer of science. With
his active participation, the International Meteorological
Assemblies were established, he was a member of the Permanent
Meteorological Committee since its foundation in 1873, an honorary
member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences, a corresponding member
of the Royal Geographical Society, and did much to improve the
methods of observation and publish their results.
He died in Oslo.
of Cape Sterlegova near the coast of Khariton Laptev. Named
by F. Nansen in 1893.
of Cape Zhelaniya on Novaya Zemlya. The
name was given by the Norwegian expeditions in 1869–1871.
The mountain on
the northern island of Novaya Zemlya, southeast of Legzdin Bay.
the very north of the Swedish island in the islands of King Charles. The
coordinates are 78°
49.8'N 26° 32'E.
a small island in the Lincoln Sea, northeast of the Nansen Land
the south of the island of Northeastern Territory of the Svalbard
the west coast of Greenland in Melville Bay.
the eastern shore of the island of Western Svalbard.