Morozov Nikolai Vasilyevich
(12(24).11.1862 - 02.03.1925)
military sailor, hydrograph, polar explorer.
Born in the village of Znamenskoye (Krivtsovo), Shchigrovsky
district, Kursk province, in a merchant family. He
graduated from the Kursk real school, then - the navigator
department of the Technical School of the Naval Department in St.
1882 he began service on the Baltic Sea with the rank of ensign of
the Naval Navigator Corps. During
1888–1891, he was at the disposal of the Separate Shooting of the
Pacific Ocean under the supervision of Lieutenant K.P. Andreev; participated
in the descriptive works of the southern part of the Peter
In the last decade of the 19th century, the government, under
pressure from the public concerned about the state of affairs in the
marine waters of the Russian North, sent several military vessels of
the Baltic Fleet to the Arctic Ocean, the task of which was to
protect Russian fields, monitor the activities of Norwegian St.
John's wort, hydrographic surveys in the White and Barents Seas.
lieutenant of the Naval Navigators Corps Morozov, who was transferred here from the Pacific
Ocean, took part in these studies. In
1894 he was on the cruiser
"Vestnik" under the direction of M.Ye. Zhdanko made
astronomical and magnetic observations, as well as survey work near
the coast of Rybachy Peninsula, in the Kola Bay, Teriberskaya Bay,
in the area of the Iokang Islands.
He was then instructed to complete the pilot description of the
coast east of Murman to the Kara Sea. For
the standard, Morozov took the description of the shores of Lapland
produced by M.F. Reineke,
and tried in his work to reach his level. Compiled
by Morozov, the pilot saw the light in 1896. It
included a detailed description of the coast and islands from Kanin
Nos to Vaigach Island with
details of significant places and signs, contained information about
the depths, reefs and shoals, currents, water properties,
From 1899 to 1905 Morozov was an assistant to the head of the
Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition A.I. Vilkitsky. In
his work on studying the conditions of navigation in the North, he
paid great attention to the experience gained by Russian sailors at
the dawn of northern navigation. The
old notebook that came to him with the text of Moroz’s station was
published in 1908 in the “Notes on Hydrography”, accompanying it
with an introductory article, comments and a dictionary of
For the next five years he headed the Hydrographic Party of the
Separate Survey of the Murmansk Coast, commanded the steamer
1905, Morozov carried out 22 steamships with cargoes for the Great
Siberian Railway at the mouth of the Yenisei, becoming the first
flight master of the Kara Sea.
Since 1910, with the rank of Colonel
of the Naval Navigators Corps, he worked at the
Main Hydrographic Office,
heading its geodesic part. In
1911, under his leadership, places were chosen for the organization
of stations at Cape Maré-Sale and in the
Kara Gate. The
following year, an attempt was made to start their construction, but
the difficult ice situation in the Kara Sea did not allow the
expedition ships to go further into the
Yugorsky Shar. It
was here that the last time “St. Anna" G.L. Brusilov. In
the logbook, Morozov wrote down: “During the day, I saw a very
beautiful barkentina ... walking boldly from the Yugorsky
into the ice of the Kara Sea; I
guessed that this was “Anna” by Lieutenant Brusilov.The captains of
the steamers, who were stationed at the radio station, told me later
that Brusilov was anchored near them and said that he wanted to
consult me about sailing in the Kara Sea”.
this meeting did not take place.
During the 1913 navigation, which was more favorable in the ice,
Morozov participated in the hydrographic research and navigation
equipment of the Kara Sea conducted on the Nikolai-2 steamer. A
year later he prepared and in 1915 published a monograph on the
results of the inventory of the White Sea.
After the October Revolution, Morozov worked in the Polar
Commission of the Hydrographic Department, in the Maritime Committee
of the Russian Hydrological Institute of the Academy of Sciences,
and took an active part in the work of the Geographical Society, of
which he was 17 years old.
Assessing the contribution of Morozov to the study of the
northern seas, Yu.M. Shokalsky wrote:
“... In this respect, and in many others, the merits of N.V. Morozov
in front of the country is very great and should be the last to be
rewarded widely and fairly in relation to the benefits that his work
not only brought, but also will bring for a long time”.
Unfortunately, this, as often happens, did not happen. The
revolution, civil war, and the difficult post-war years scattered
his once large family around the world. Still
not old, but Morozov, who is no longer capable of work, ended his
life in a boarding house for lonely, poor people.
He died in Leningrad, was buried in the Smolensk
Orthodox cemetery in
the grave of his young relative, who died in 1914. Stele
on the curb of Putilov plate appeared only in the 1980s. Graves
of Morozov and A.I. Vilkitsky
located opposite each other on both sides of the crosswalk.
the Strait of Kara. Named
in 1902 by A.I. Varnek.
the east of the island Bolshevik. Opened
in 1914 and named by the hydrographic expedition of the Arctic Ocean.
the west of Verne Island in the Kara Sea, southwest of Dikson
in 1962 by V.A. Troitsky. The
name was approved by the decision of the Dikson regional executive
committee of December 20, 1962.
entrance to Rogachev Bay in the Kostin Shar Strait. In
1896 called by the officers of the screw transport “Samoyed”,
which performed hydrographic work here.
Cape Morozov in Rogachev Bay
(photo O. Himanycha)
the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea. Surveyed
and named by crew of the cruiser "Herald" in 1894.
The strait separating
from the mainland the island of Mestny near the port of Amderma. Apparently
named in 1933 by the captain of the steamer “Gleb Boky”, Steinberg.
(photo V. Shadrina)