(04.03.1824 – 24.10.1866)
English naturalist and hydrograph. Member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Royal Society of London.
Born in Coburg in the Canadian state of Ontario, where his parents emigrated from Scotland in 1834. I went to school in London, Ontario, and then entered Coburg College. In 1858 at the age of seventeen, he returned to Scotland.
In 1864 Murray entered the University of Edinburgh medical department, but did not finish his studies. In 1868 as a surgeon, he joined the team of the Norwegian whaling ship, visited Jan Mayen and Spitsbergen, during the 7-month voyage he collected sea samples, recorded ocean currents, ice movements, weather changes.
Upon his return, Murray continued his studies at Edinburgh University, but already in the science department.
In 1872–1876 he took part in a round-the-world expedition on the ship “Challenger”, the ideologist and initiator of which was the biologist of the University of Edinburgh, Charles Thomas. The path covered by the Challenger expedition was about 70 thousand nautical miles, during which the crew was engaged in scientific research. Results travels were set out in the 50- volume «Report оf the Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876». Among many other discoveries, over 4,000 new species of marine fauna have been described. Since 1882 after the death of Thomson, Murray led the editing and publication of work materials. He estimated its results as "the greatest progress in knowledge of our planet since the times of the famous discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries". In recognition of the accomplishments of this expedition, Murray renamed his home to the "Challenger Shelter". Currently, there is a hospice of St. Columbus.
After completing the publication of the expedition’s report on the Challenger, Murray began researching the lakes of Scotland, at an international oceanographic conference in Stockholm in 1909 indicated the need for research in the North Atlantic and then headed the expedition to the area on the ship "Michael Sars". He first noted the existence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and oceanic troughs, the presence of sediment transferred from the Sahara in the ocean.
In 1897 he was elected Corresponding Member (Physics and Mathematics Department of Biological Class) of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
Murray's seething activity was interrupted by the death in a car accident Kirkliston. Buried in Edinburgh at the Dekan cemetery.
Isle near the east coast of Greenland.
Cape and glacier on the east coast of. Prince Karl Vorland. Coordinates 78° 40'N 11° 00'E.
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