Zelenoy (Zeleniy) Semyon Ilyich 
(08(20).07.1812–28.05(09.06).1892)


Russian astronomer, mathematician, hydrograph, teacher. 
Born in the Pskov province. He was educated in the Naval Cadet Corps, after which he graduated from the rank of midshipman and was left for improvement in the naval sciences in the officer class (later Mykolaiv Maritime Academy). In 1832
Zelenoy was seconded to the University of Dorpat, where he was led by the famous V.Ya. Struve trained in practical astronomy. 
Zelenoy's scientific activity began in 1833 with the participation in the rank of lieutenant in the F.F. Schubert Chronometric Expedition.  A little later, in 1835, his pedagogical work began. He was seconded to the Marine Corps for teaching midshipman and officer astronomy and navigation classes. The talent of the teacher appeared in him from the very first steps in this field. In his lectures, the scientific depth of content was happily combined with the availability and fascinating presentation. In 1838, Zelenoy was invited as a lecturer in astronomy at St. Petersburg University. He was elected a member of a number of scientific societies, most of his works were awarded the prizes of the Academy of Sciences. For his work “Astronomical Means of Navigation”, Zelenoy received the full Demidov Prize in 1842, becoming the fourth of the naval officers as its laureate, and for the book “Conversations with Children about Astronomy”, Emperor Nicholas I awarded him a diamond ring. 
From 1839 to 1850 he was engaged in the compilation and publication of the marine almanac, collaborated in various encyclopedia publications. 

In the second half of the 1840s, there was a dramatic change in views on the system of education and education of cadets of the Marine Corps. The point of view has taken over: “front service is more important than differentials and integrals”. For this reason, in 1849, Zelenoy, as a supporter of liberal methods of upbringing and diverse and deep education, was forced to abandon his favorite pedagogical work and even leave the naval service. But a teacher of this level could not remain unclaimed. He took the post of director of the Moscow Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages ​​with the renaming of the rank of lieutenant colonel in the army. Exceptional pedagogical and organizational skills enabled Zelenoy to put the level of teaching in this educational institution to an exceptional height in five years. He was awarded the Order of St. Anne 2 degrees and made a colonel, and for scientific works awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 4 degrees, in certification to which was said: "as the most worthy of the worthy in mind, heart and education". 
In 1855, with the entry into the management of the fleet of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, by his personal desire,
Zelenoy was returned to the fleet as “one of the most excellent sailors mistakenly dismissed by the former authorities”. There followed a natural renaming to rank 1 captains and the appointment of a vice-director of the hydrographic department. Three years later he became a rear admiral and took the post of director of the department, where he worked for 14 years. 
During this happy period for the Russian fleet, a number of important, vital activities were carried out under the direction of Zeleny: the hydrographic service was reorganized, the role of science in the field of navigation and hydrography was sharply increased, first-class equipped sea astronomical observatories were organized, works on the White,  Black, Caspian and Baltic seas were made, reorganized lighthouse business and others. All this puts Zelenoy in a row of the most remarkable figures of the Russian fleet. By personal example, guidance and support, human charisma, he inspired subordinates to selfless work. Thanks to Zelenoy, the Russian fleet began to be serviced by domestic appliances, superior to foreign ones with meticulousness and precision of manufacturing. 
In 1873, the Imperial Academy of Sciences elected him an honorary member. The extraordinary human qualities of Zelenoy allowed him in 1881 to become the chairman of such a serious and dangerous institution as the Main Naval Court. He performed this responsible position for ten years, as long as he had enough strength and health. In 1891, Zelenoy was promoted to full admiral and resigned. 
He died in St. Petersburg, a little more than a month before reaching his 80th birthday. He was buried at the Smolensk Orthodox cemetery. The grave could not be found. 
Cape on the island Rykachev in the Kara Sea near the coast of Khariton Laptev. 
Named in 1900 RPE.

 

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