Zubov Nikolay Nikolaevich
An oceanologist, professor, doctor of geographical sciences,
engineer-rear admiral, honored worker of science and technology of
the RSFSR, researcher of the Arctic, one of the founders of the
Soviet science of ice.
He was born in the town of Lipcani, Bessarabian province, in a
military family - a cavalry officer who graduated from Elisavetgrad
cavalry cadet school and officer cavalry school.
He participated in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878, in the
First World War, had many awards, rose to the rank of general.
He was buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy cemetery.
In the family, in addition to the eldest son Nicholas, there were
nine more children.
Due to the constant employment of the father, their upbringing
completely fell on the mother’s shoulders.
Primary education the boy received in the seventh St. Petersburg
gymnasium, and in 1894 he became a graduate of the First St.
Petersburg Cadet Corps.
Already during this period, the outstanding personal qualities of
In his certification notebooks for different years of study you
can see such characteristics: “... outstanding abilities, with
excellent memory, kind, cordial ..., with good will power.
Truthful and frank ”or“ ... extremely curious and inquisitive.
Hard character and strong will.
Easily submits to his influence comrades.
Comrade in the best sense of the word".
In 1901, Zubov entered the special classes of the privileged
Naval Cadet Corps, which, due to the outbreak of the
Russian-Japanese war, ended prematurely in 1904.
In terms of academic success, he became the twenty-eighth of 128
Having received the title of midshipman, the 19-year-old Zubov
was enlisted in the service of the watch supervisor on the
outfitting squadron battleship
"Orel", and then on the destroyer
In 1905, he participated in the Battle of Tsushima, where he was
After a long ordeal, I reached Shanghai and was interned until
the end of the war.
Upon returning to Russia, he was awarded the first military
awards and the rank of lieutenant.
In 1908 Zubov entered the Nikolaev Maritime Academy and two years
later, after graduating from its hydrographic department, he became
the navigator of the first category.
During these years, specializing in hydrography, the most civil
of the military sciences, Zubov at the same time paid much attention
to tactics and strategies of naval combat, painfully analyzed the
causes of the crushing defeat of the Russian fleet in the Tsushima
In 1912 he held his first meeting with the Arctic, which
determined the choice of life.
Zubov was appointed navigator and senior officer on the
“Bakan” messenger ship, whose tasks included the protection of fisheries in
the Arctic Ocean and hydrographic observations.
The leadership of the hydrographic survey was the main
responsibility of Zubov.
His first contribution to Arctic hydrography was the description
and menstrual survey of the Mityushikha Bay on the western coast of
the northern island of Novaya Zemlya.
The service at the “Bakan” could have continued for a long time,
but in 1913, Zubov was discharged as a disease ashore — the
consequences of his contusion began to be felt.
Once on shore, Zubov succeeded in resigning and joined the
Ministry of Commerce and Industry, taking up hydrometeorological
support for seaports.
During this period, he completed an internship in oceanology in
Norway, at the Bergen Institute of Geophysics;
returning to his homeland, for the first time he began teaching,
reading a course of hydrology for the staff of the Ministry of Trade
and Industry, as well as a course of tactical navigation in officer
During World War I, Zubov, again called up for military service,
took part in the hostilities.
In October 1914, he - the commander of the destroyer "Poslushniy".
A few months later he was transferred to the headquarters of the
fleet commander for the post of flagship navigator officer at the
headquarters of the head of the division of submarines of the Baltic
In October 1915, the submarine "Cayman", on which Senior Lieutenant
Zubov was then, seized the German steamer.
For participation in this operation, he was presented to the
Anna 3 degrees with swords and bow.
In December 1915, Zubov was promoted to captain 2 rank.
At the beginning of July 1916 he was already a flagship navigator
officer, now in the headquarters of the commander of the fleet of
the Baltic Sea.
In the new assignment, not only military merit alone played a
role, but also Zubov’s successful activities in the field of the
theory of naval tactics.
All these years, the young officer has written and published
articles on naval art, in which he focuses primarily on maneuvering
At the same time, he also reads a tactical navigation course in
the navigator classes of the Naval Academy.
At the end of 1916, Zubov became commander of the “Powerful”
In the civil war mobilized into the army of Kolchak, he served as
commander of the reserve battalion, fortunately, did not participate
Captured by parts of the Red Army, he was sent to the
headquarters of the Naval Forces for the post of head of the
training department of naval educational institutions in Moscow.
In 1921, Zubov participated in the creation of the Floating
Marine Scientific Institute (Plavmornin), the first oceanological
scientific institution in Soviet Russia.
Becoming his employee, he combined research and teaching
activities, reading the course of naval tactics at the Military
Academy of Sciences and studying the processes occurring in the
waters of the Barents Sea.
In the summer of 1923 on the ship "Perseus" sailed in the Barents
Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, in 1928–1929.
on the same vessel explored the southern part of the Barents Sea.
Zubov headed the department of oceanology created by him at the
Moscow Hydrometeorological Institute.
In the same period in the summer seasons, he actively
participated in marine scientific expeditions.
In 1930, the ship "N.
Knipovich" sailed in the high latitudes of the Barents Sea, in
1932 reached Victoria Island on the same ship, where he raised the
Soviet flag, and for the first time in the history of navigation, he
skirted Franz Josef Land from the north, and in 1935 led the
scientific part of the expedition
on the Sadko icebreaking steamer, in 1939, flew over the Kara Sea to
explore the ice, marking the beginning of mandatory pre-navigation
ice exploration in all the seas of the Soviet Arctic.
During World War II Zubov returned to the Navy, participated in
ice transportation in the western sector of the Arctic.
His merits were awarded the Order of the
War of 1 degree and the medal "For
the Defense of the Soviet Arctic".
he was director of the State Oceanographic Institute, since 1948
- Professor of the Faculty of Geography of Moscow State University.
He died on one of the gloomy November days of 1960 and was buried
in the Novodevichy cemetery.
Zubov is a world-renowned scientist.
He wrote the fundamental works on ice forecasts in the Arctic
seas, he laid the foundations of dynamic oceanology, developed the
theory of straits.
Cape on the southern shore of the
Mityushikha Bay on the west coast of the northern island of Novaya
Northern Hydrographic Expedition, which has been conducting
systematic work on Novaya Zemlya since 1924.