Borisov Alexander Alekseevich
In the history of Russian culture and painting, he occupies a
It combined the artist's gift and thirst for exploring the North,
studying its geography and natural resources.
That is why the pictures about the North were not episodes in his
work, but made up its very essence.
Borisov can rightfully be considered the founder of the polar
Borisov was born in the small northern village of Glubokyi
Stream, not far from Krasnoborsk (Solvychegodsky district of the
Vologda province) on the Northern Dvina, in the family of a peasant
Need and hard work accompanied him until the end of the Academy
Severe childhood and youth did not bend Borisov, on the contrary,
they hardened his character, instilled in him those qualities that
are necessary for the person who linked his life with the North.
The gloomy, overwhelming beauty of the North attracted and
Being "a northerner for the soul and birth, all his life from
early youth only dreamed of going there, upwards, beyond the borders
of the Arkhangelsk province".
As a student in 1894, Borisov, as a draftsman, participated in
the trip of S.Yu.
in the North of Russia and Norway.
In 1896, he, together with the expedition of the Academy of
Sciences, first visited Novaya Zemlya.
Attraction to the North forced Borisov to organize their own
In 1897, he made a great journey through the Bolshezemelskaya
tundra and Fr.
Vaigach, from whom he brought “two pounds of sketches”, revealing
the beauty of blossoming tundra and floating ice, a number of
sketches from the life of the Nenets, as well as travel notes,
reflecting the poverty and deprivation of the local population, the
disorder of their life.
From the Arkhangelsk Museum of Art Development of the
Arctic named after A.A.
In the navigation of 1899, Borisov set off to Novaya Zemlya,
delivering there a forest for the house and equipment for a future
On the tiny yacht "Dream" he passed through the ice of
Matochkin Shar and
unloaded equipment in the
Chekin Bay area.
That year, due to the harshest ice conditions, only Borisov’s
yacht could get through to the Kars side.
Yacht Borisova "Dream", overwhelmed by the ice in
In 1900 - 1901, Borisov’s last and most productive trip to Novaya
Zemlya took place.
He built a house at the western entrance in the Matochkin Strait
of Shar in the Pomorskaya Guba, and with eight satellites went to
the “Dream” in the Kara Sea.
After unloading food at Chekina Bay on the way back, they were
forced to leave the vessel, which was polluted with ice, and set off
for Ice to go to New Land.
They had to throw the boats, except for a small boat-icehouse,
most of the food and equipment, the dogs died.
The distance traveled during the day was compensated by reverse
drift at night.
Fortunately, the ice floe with weakened people still washed
ashore south of Matochkin Shar.
The Nenets fishing artel accidentally found here saved them.
For three weeks, the 400-kilometer crossing of Novaya Zemlya
Only in November, travelers arrived at their home in the
Pomeranian Bay, where they winterized.
Wintering was successful, thanks to a well-established life and
In April 1901, Borisov with his assistant zoologist T.E.
Timofeev and Nenets Ustinov Kanyukov on three dog sleds went to
the Kara side.
On this trip, Borisov wrote hundreds of sketches and sketches,
which he used to create his world famous paintings.
In addition, valuable geological, zoological and botanical
collections were collected, as well as for the first time mapped the
internal parts of the
gulfs of Medvezhy, Neznaimy and Chekina, which penetrated deep
into the land, where no man’s foot had gone before.
Travelers also made their way back on foot or by boat and in
August reached their home in the Pomeranian Bay.
The sea to the horizon was covered with ice, but this did not
scare polar explorers.
They were provided with everything necessary for wintering.
However, after a few days, the steamer suddenly appeared.
It turned out to be the Pakhtusov Hydrographic Expedition under
the direction of A.I.
whom they met earlier in Matochkin Ball.
Now the ship has come from the Gribovaya Bay, where it was saved
from the pressure of the ice.
Having accepted a kind offer from Vilkitsky, Borisov and his
assistants embarked on a ship and arrived in Arkhangelsk in early
Coast of the New Earth in the area of the bays
Unknowable and Bear
The vast majority of Borisov's geographical names are memorials
associated with people close to him.
Here the names of his patrons are
S. Yu. Vitte (glacier),
mountain ), M.I.
Another group of names is the names of prominent Russian artists
glacier), including his teachers
I. I. Shishkin (cape
A.I. Kuinji (cape).
He did not give his name to any object.
The talent of Borisov the artist was appreciated by I.E.
Repin and V.M.
After their appreciation, the founder of the Moscow Art Gallery,
Tretyakov already in 1896, acquired 66 etudes and paintings
After the artist returned from the Arctic, a lot of work and
triumphal exhibitions of paintings in many of the largest cities in
Europe and America awaited.
Rozmyslov Bay (Unknowable)
The problems of the North occupied Borisov even after he ceased
to participate in Arctic expeditions.
Being a champion of industrial development of the North, Borisov
was among those who had lost faith in the possibility of regular
navigation in the Arctic seas and became an ardent supporter of the
development of railway communications in the north of Russia.
In 1908, he made a project for the construction of the
Ob-Murmansk railway (Ob-Kotlas-Soroka with access from Kotlas to St.
In 1918, Borisov and the Norwegian banker E. Gannevig turned to
the Soviet government with a proposal for a concession for the
construction of this road, which they called the Great Northern
The proposal was reviewed and approved by the Council of People's
Commissars, but it was not possible to implement it for financial
The last years of his life, Borisov lived in his house near
As soon as the Civil War ended, he began to implement his
long-standing idea of creating a resort near his home on the basis
of a mineral spring.
He succeeded in many respects thanks to N.A.
Borisov’s wife did not want to live “in this bearish corner” and
insisted on moving to Berlin.
The artist decidedly refused to leave his homeland.
In 1922, his wife and adoptive daughter, the last steamer to
Arkhangelsk, went abroad.
House A. A. Borisov in Krasnoborsk
Art already took little of Borisov.
He devoted himself to the work of the manager of the Solonikha
resort created by him, dealt with the economic problems of the
North, was a freelance employee of the USSR State Planning
He was repeatedly offered a job and a good apartment in Moscow,
but he refused.
In 1932, three spring months, Borisov spent with his wife in
Here he again saw his paintings, which prompted him to create for
the Arkhangelsk Museum a large canvas “Augustus Midnight in the Kara
The services of Borisov were awarded the Order of
Vladimir of 4 degrees , the English Order of the
Bath , the
the Legion of Honor , the Norwegian Order of
Arkhangelsk Museum of Art Development of the Arctic
named after A.A.
Death interrupted this job.
He was buried in the rural
In 1974, on the 40th anniversary of the death of Borisov, a
monument to the artist was unveiled in his homeland in the village
The peninsula on the eastern
coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya between the gulfs of
Chekina and the Unknowable.
The name was approved in 1973 by the Council of Ministers of the
RSFSR on the proposal of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the
standing Interdepartmental Commission on Geographical Names under
the General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography under the Council
of Ministers of the USSR.