Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik
Swedish scientist and polar traveler
Born in Helsingfors. His
father, Nils Gustav Nordenskiöld, gained fame for his scientific
expeditions to Siberia and the Urals. Distinguished
the entire genus of Nordensheld, energy and resilience passed on to
Adolf, who inherited, in addition, from his father, a passion for
natural sciences.Nordenskiöld received his initial education at the
Borgo Gymnasium; in
1849 he entered the University of Helsingfor. In
1853 he received the degree of candidate, and in 1855 - licentiate
for his article on mineralogy. The
works on chemistry, mineralogy and zoology brought him the place of
curator of the mathematical-physical faculty, as well as a small
position in the mining administration. Then
Nordenskiöld worked in Germany, especially in Berlin under G. Rose
and in Sweden, where the work of the young scientist was so valuable
that he was still in 1858, at 26 was appointed professor at the
Stockholm Academy of Sciences and head of the mineralogical
collections of the state museum. In
the same year, Nordenskjold under the direction of Professor Torell
set off on his first Arctic expedition, the purpose of which was to
study the western coast of Spitsbergen. She
gave such rich results in zoology, botany, mineralogy and geology
that the Swedish government three years later equipped a new
expedition under the command of the same Torell, which included 10
scientists, including and
latter belonged to the honor of mapping the Hinlopen Strait and the
Seven Islands during two extremely difficult boat excursions. The
third Swedish expedition to Svalbard took place already under the
command of Nordenskiöld himself. Its
purpose was to study the southern and southeastern parts of
Spitsbergen and to check the map of Svalbard. In
addition, many interesting observations were made in the field of
flora and fauna.
In 1868 Nordenskiöld, with private funds, undertook the fourth
expedition to Svalbard on the Sophia steamer put at his disposal by
the government. The
expedition consisted of 8 scientists in various fields, as a result
of which the scientific results of the expedition turned out to be
very rich. On
found rich deposits of coal and a lot of fossils, in the sea at a
depth of 2650 fathoms discovered a rather active animal life, which
had never been suspected. In
view of the fact that all previous expeditions were undertaken in
the summer, meanwhile it was important to get acquainted with the
winter conditions in these polar areas, Nordenskiöld decided to
undertake a new polar expedition with a wintering place.
In 1870 Nordenskiöld traveled to the Greenland Expedition,
accompanied by 3 natural scientists. Scientific
results and this time were quite significant. In
addition to botanical collections, many fossils of the Cretaceous
and Tertiary periods were collected, which were of great importance
for the expansion of information on the history of the development
of the earth in the most remote times. On
the southern coast of the island
of Disco, three of the greatest meteorites found so far,
weighing about 500, 200 and 90 centners, have been found.
Having completed this study, Nordenskiöld began to actively
prepare for a new large expedition. For
her, the government provided two warships: the steamer “Polkhnem”
with captain A.A. Palander,
and the brig "Gladan" with captain Kruzenshtern. The
expedition was unsuccessful, barely able to get to Mossel Bay on
September 3, where it was necessary to winter. There
was also no luck in the further movement to the north; I
had to confine myself to reaching the southernmost of the Seven
the failures, however, could not break the energy and courage of
Nordenskiöld and other members of the expedition, who under his
leadership achieved very successful scientific results.
Upon the return of Nordenskiöld, O.
Dixon put at his
disposal the means to equip the expedition, which aimed to pass
through the Kara Sea and reach the mouths
of the Ob and Yenisei. In
this expedition, Nordenskiöld traveled in the summer of 1875 on a
small vessel Preven and reached the mouths of the Yenisei on 15
the way, stops were made at various places of Novaya
Zemlya, on Vaigach Island and Yamal, so that the naturalists who
accompanied Nordenskiöld had a wide opportunity to collect rich
materials in their specialties. At
the mouth of the Yenisei, the expedition was divided into 2 parties; one
of them returned to the “Prevena” in the same way;another of 2
scientists and 3 sailors under the rule of Nordenskiöld moved by
boat up the Yenisei. The
following year, Nordenskiöld undertook a new Yenisei expedition, and
in the meantime he managed to visit North America, Philadelphia,
where he was invited by a judge to the world exhibition.
On July 25, 1876 Nordenskiöld departed from Tromso on the
steamer Imer and on August 15 was in the area of the mouth of the
expedition turned out to be as rich in scientific results as the
previous one. The
travels of Nordenskiöld and the scientific results obtained in their
process have earned him worldwide fame. The
first of foreigners he was awarded the highest award of the Imperial
Russian Geographical Society - the Big
Good luck prompted Nordenskiöld to set himself even more
ambitious and ambitious goal - to open the "Northeast Passage".
The funds for this expedition were delivered again by part of the
Swedish government, part by the king Oscar and patrons of art: the
Swedish O. Dixon and the Russian
"Vega" and "Lena" salute Cape Chelyuskin. 1878
On July 4, 1878 the famous vessel "Vega" subsequently left
with Nordenskiöld, Captain Vega Palander, his assistant Brutevich,
botanist Chelman, zoologist Stukberg, doctor and botanist Almquist,
hydrograph Bové, physicist Govgard and lieutenant of the Russian
fleet zoologist Nordquist were there. On
August 1 “Vega” passed through the Yugorsky Ball into the Kara Sea
and on August 6 reached the harbor
of Dixon without
of the mouth of the Yenisei River). From
there, after 4 days, she went further towards Cape
latter, in spite of predictions, went quite well, and on August 24
the expedition reached the mouth
of the Lena. However,
on September 28 Vega was finally covered with ice at Cape Pitlekai
northwest of the Bering Strait. I
had to winter here just a few days sailing from the main goal of the
whole expedition. Wintering
gave scientists full scope for research work. They
collected rich materials in a completely unexplored region.
It was only on July 18 of the following 1879 that they were able
to continue their voyage, and, two days later, the Vega circled
Dehnev Cape and entered the Bering Strait.
This voyage established the existence of the Northeast Passage,
but the map of the shores of Siberia, compiled by Nordenskjold,
turned out to be inaccurate due to the lack of definitions of
latitudes from the Kara Sea to Cape Pitlekai. The
description of the expedition appeared simultaneously in several
Nordenskiöld voyages along the northern shores of Eurasia
constituted an epoch in the history of Russian Arctic research,
prompting new expeditionary work.
In 1883, the tireless explorer went back to Greenland already on
the steamer Sofia. This
time, taught by previous experience, he was better prepared for the
expedition to the inner area of the ice plateau and achieved great
starting point was the valley of the northern arm of the Alaytsivik
fjord (approximately 68° 30'N ). On
July 7, 1883 Nordenskiöld with 8 satellites (two Laplanders between
them) set off. In
two weeks, only 117 km passed, but it was impossible to move further
with the sled through loose, melting snow. Some
Laplanders were sent ahead, who returned after 57 hours, claiming
that they traveled another 230 km and reached an altitude of 1950
Nansen, however, later proved that they hardly traveled more
than 70 km. Thus,
the entire distance traveled this time by the Nordensheld expedition
was approximately 200 km. On
August 3 we returned to the place of departure, spending 4 weeks on
the ice. On
August 17, the “Sophia” sailed back and turned out to be the first
ship to break through the continuous ice floe off the coast of
scientific results of this expedition of Nordenskiöld, which
penetrated deep into the icy plateau of Greenland beyond any of its
predecessors, were very significant. During
the last expeditions, Nordenskjold was granted baronial dignity. The
results of his many years of research in Greenland, he summarized in
1885 in the capital monograph "Greenland", published in Swedish,
English and German.
"Vega" wintering. 1878
- 1879 years.
In 1883 Nordenskiöld forever said goodbye to the polar
countries, the study of which he was engaged for more than a quarter
of a century. The
main place in his scientific work was taken by the history of
cartography and the creation of a collection of unique old maps. Until
the end of his days, he closely contacted scientists from many
countries, including Russia, and took an active part in the
preparation of the expedition of S.
From 1870 to 1872 Nordenskiöld was a member of the Swedish
Riksdag, was a supporter of the liberal party.
He died of a broken heart in his estate Delbio near Stockholm. He
was buried in Västerljung,
In 1985 a monument to Nordenskiöld was erected in the Kaivopuisto park
in Helsinki. On
the back of the monument is a map showing its path.
Monument to Nordensheld in Helsinki
The archipelago off
the northwest coast of Taimyr. First
put on the map by H.
in 1893 by F. Nansen.
the island of Western Spitsbergen.
the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the Victoria Strait. Opened
and named by expedition R.
Amundsen on the "Joa"
An island in
the Svalbard archipelago between the islands of West Svalbard and
An island in
the Greenland Sea off the east coast of Greenland north of Trail
The southern entrance cape of the Bay
Nameless on the west coast of the southern island of New Earth. In
1925, she called the commission of the Northern Hydrographic
Expedition chaired by N.I. Yevgenov.
Diabazovy Island in Minin's skerries. The
name on the proposal of the Hydrographic Enterprise of the Ministry
of the Navy was given by the decision of the Dikson regional
executive committee of March 20, 1972
the east coast of the Boothy Peninsula in the Canadian Arctic
the east coast of the island
Medvejiy, Svalbard. The
coordinates are 74° 28'N
the island of West Svalbard.
the east coast of New Earth north of Wellness Bay. Named
in 1910 as the head of the Novaya Zemlya expedition on the ship
“Dmitry Solunsky” V.A. Rusanov.
West Greenland on the Melville Bay coast.
Bay and glacier in
the southwest of the island of Alexandra Land
in the archipelago Franz-Josef Land. Opened
and named in 1895, by the English expedition F.
the west coast of New Earth. The
name was given by the Norwegians in 1869–1971 years.
in the Lincoln Sea on the north-west coast of Greenland.
the north coast of the island of Northeastern Territory of Svalbard
Adolfbukta Bay in
the very north of Bille Fjord, Spitsbergen.