Nordenskiold Nils Adolf Erik 

Outstanding Swedish scientist and polar traveler 
Born in Helsingfors. His father, Nils Gustav Nordenskiöld, gained fame for his scientific expeditions to Siberia and the Urals. Distinguished the entire genus of Nordensheld, energy and resilience passed on to Adolf, who inherited, in addition, from his father, a passion for natural sciences.Nordenskiöld received his initial education at the Borgo Gymnasium; in 1849 he entered the University of Helsingfor. In 1853 he received the degree of candidate, and in 1855 - licentiate for his article on mineralogy. The works on chemistry, mineralogy and zoology brought him the place of curator of the mathematical-physical faculty, as well as a small position in the mining administration. Then Nordenskiöld worked in Germany, especially in Berlin under G. Rose and in Sweden, where the work of the young scientist was so valuable that he was still in 1858, at 26 was appointed professor at the Stockholm Academy of Sciences and head of the mineralogical collections of the state museum. In the same year, Nordenskjold under the direction of Professor Torell set off on his first Arctic expedition, the purpose of which was to study the western coast of Spitsbergen. She gave such rich results in zoology, botany, mineralogy and geology that the Swedish government three years later equipped a new expedition under the command of the same Torell, which included 10 scientists, including and Nordenskiöld. The latter belonged to the honor of mapping the Hinlopen Strait and the Seven Islands during two extremely difficult boat excursions. The third Swedish expedition to Svalbard took place already under the command of Nordenskiöld himself. Its purpose was to study the southern and southeastern parts of Spitsbergen and to check the map of Svalbard. In addition, many interesting observations were made in the field of flora and fauna. 
In 1868  Nordenskiöld, with private funds, undertook the fourth expedition to Svalbard on the "Sophia" steamer put at his disposal by the government. The expedition consisted of 8 scientists in various fields, as a result of which the scientific results of the expedition turned out to be very rich. On island Medvejiy  found rich deposits of coal and a lot of fossils, in the sea at a depth of 2650 fathoms discovered a rather active animal life, which had never been suspected. In view of the fact that all previous expeditions were undertaken in the summer, meanwhile it was important to get acquainted with the winter conditions in these polar areas, Nordenskiöld decided to undertake a new polar expedition with a wintering place. 
In 1870  Nordenskiöld traveled to the Greenland Expedition, accompanied by 3 natural scientists. Scientific results and this time were quite significant. In addition to botanical collections, many fossils of the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods were collected, which were of great importance for the expansion of information on the history of the development of the earth in the most remote times. On the southern coast of the island of Disco, three of the greatest meteorites found so far, weighing about 500, 200 and 90 centners, have been found. 
Having completed this study, Nordenskiöld began to actively prepare for a new large expedition. For her, the government provided two warships: the steamer “Polkhnem” with captain A.A. Palander, and the brig "Gladan" with captain Kruzenshtern. The expedition was unsuccessful, barely able to get to Mossel Bay on September 3, where it was necessary to winter. There was also no luck in the further movement to the north; I had to confine myself to reaching the southernmost of the Seven Islands. All the failures, however, could not break the energy and courage of Nordenskiöld and other members of the expedition, who under his leadership achieved very successful scientific results. 
Upon the return of Nordenskiöld, O. Dixon put at his disposal the means to equip the expedition, which aimed to pass through the Kara Sea and reach the mouths of the Ob and Yenisei. In this expedition, Nordenskiöld traveled in the summer of 1875 on a small vessel Preven and reached the mouths of the Yenisei on 15 August. On the way, stops were made at various places of Novaya Zemlya, on Vaigach Island and Yamal, so that the naturalists who accompanied Nordenskiöld had a wide opportunity to collect rich materials in their specialties. At the mouth of the Yenisei, the expedition was divided into 2 parties; one of them returned to the “Prevena” in the same way;another of 2 scientists and 3 sailors under the rule of Nordenskiöld moved by boat up the Yenisei. The following year, Nordenskiöld undertook a new Yenisei expedition, and in the meantime he managed to visit North America, Philadelphia, where he was invited by a judge to the world exhibition. 
On July 25, 1876  Nordenskiöld departed from Tromso on the steamer Imer and on August 15 was in the area of the mouth of the Yenisei. This expedition turned out to be as rich in scientific results as the previous one. The travels of Nordenskiöld and the scientific results obtained in their process have earned him worldwide fame. The first of foreigners he was awarded the highest award of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society - the Big Konstantinovsky medal. 
Good luck prompted Nordenskiöld to set himself even more ambitious and ambitious goal - to open the "Northeast Passage". 
The funds for this expedition were delivered again by part of the Swedish government, part by the king Oscar and patrons of art: the Swedish O. Dixon and the Russian A.M. 


"Vega" and "Lena" salute Cape Chelyuskin. 1878


On July 4, 1878  the famous vessel "Vega" subsequently left Göteborg. Along with Nordenskiöld, Captain Vega Palander, his assistant Brutevich, botanist Chelman, zoologist Stukberg, doctor and botanist Almquist, hydrograph Bové, physicist Govgard and lieutenant of the Russian fleet zoologist Nordquist were there. On August 1  “Vega” passed through the Yugorsky Ball into the Kara Sea and on August 6 reached the harbor of Dixon without difficulty (north of the mouth of the Yenisei River). From there, after 4 days, she went further towards Cape Chelyuskin. The latter, in spite of predictions, went quite well, and on August 24 the expedition reached the mouth of the Lena. However, on September 28  Vega was finally covered with ice at Cape Pitlekai northwest of the Bering Strait. I had to winter here just a few days sailing from the main goal of the whole expedition. Wintering gave scientists full scope for research work. They collected rich materials in a completely unexplored region. 
It was only on July 18 of the following 1879 that they were able to continue their voyage, and, two days later, the Vega circled Dehnev Cape and entered the Bering Strait. 
This voyage established the existence of the Northeast Passage, but the map of the shores of Siberia, compiled by Nordenskjold, turned out to be inaccurate due to the lack of definitions of latitudes from the Kara Sea to Cape Pitlekai. The description of the expedition appeared simultaneously in several languages. The Nordenskiöld voyages along the northern shores of Eurasia constituted an epoch in the history of Russian Arctic research, prompting new expeditionary work.

In 1883, the tireless explorer went back to Greenland already on the steamer Sofia. This time, taught by previous experience, he was better prepared for the expedition to the inner area of the ice plateau and achieved great results. The starting point was the valley of the northern arm of the Alaytsivik fjord (approximately 68° 30'N ). On July 7, 1883  Nordenskiöld with 8 satellites (two Laplanders between them) set off. In two weeks, only 117 km passed, but it was impossible to move further with the sled through loose, melting snow. Some Laplanders were sent ahead, who returned after 57 hours, claiming that they traveled another 230 km and reached an altitude of 1950 meters. F. Nansen, however, later proved that they hardly traveled more than 70 km. Thus, the entire distance traveled this time by the Nordensheld expedition was approximately 200 km. On August 3  we returned to the place of departure, spending 4 weeks on the ice. On August 17, the “Sophia” sailed back and turned out to be the first ship to break through the continuous ice floe off the coast of Greenland. The scientific results of this expedition of Nordenskiöld, which penetrated deep into the icy plateau of Greenland beyond any of its predecessors, were very significant. During the last expeditions, Nordenskjold was granted baronial dignity. The results of his many years of research in Greenland, he summarized in 1885 in the capital monograph "Greenland", published in Swedish, English and German.


"Vega" wintering. 1878 - 1879 years.

In 1883  Nordenskiöld forever said goodbye to the polar countries, the study of which he was engaged for more than a quarter of a century. The main place in his scientific work was taken by the history of cartography and the creation of a collection of unique old maps. Until the end of his days, he closely contacted scientists from many countries, including Russia, and took an active part in the preparation of the expedition of S. Andre. 
From 1870 to 1872 Nordenskiöld was a member of the Swedish Riksdag, was a supporter of the liberal party. 
He died of a broken heart in his estate Delbio near Stockholm. He was buried in Västerljung, Sweden.

In 1985  a monument to Nordenskiöld was erected in the Kaivopuisto park in Helsinki. On the back of the monument is a map showing its path.


Monument to Nordensheld in Helsinki


The archipelago off the northwest coast of Taimyr. First put on the map by H. Laptev. Named in 1893 by F. Nansen. 
Plateau on the island of Western Spitsbergen.

Islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the Victoria Strait. Opened and named by expedition R. Amundsen on the "Joa" in 1905. 
An island in the Svalbard archipelago between the islands of West Svalbard and Northeastern Land. 
An island in the Greenland Sea off the east coast of Greenland north of Trail Island.

The southern entrance cape of the Bay Nameless on the west coast of the southern island of New Earth. In 1925, she called the commission of the Northern Hydrographic Expedition chaired by N.I. Yevgenov. 
Cape on Diabazovy Island in Minin's skerries. The name on the proposal of the Hydrographic Enterprise of the Ministry of the Navy was given by the decision of the Dikson regional executive committee of March 20, 1972 
Cape on the east coast of the Boothy Peninsula in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Cape on the east coast of the island Medvejiy, Svalbard. The coordinates are 74° 28'N   19° 17'E.

Glacier on the island of West Svalbard. 
Glacier on the east coast of New Earth north of Wellness Bay. Named in 1910 as the head of the Novaya Zemlya expedition on the ship “Dmitry Solunsky” V.A. Rusanov. 
Glacier in West Greenland on the Melville Bay coast.

Bay and glacier in the southwest of the island of Alexandra Land in the archipelago Franz-Josef Land. Opened and named in 1895, by the English expedition F. Jackson. 
Bay on the west coast of New Earth. The name was given by the Norwegians in 1869–1971 years. 
Bay (Nordenskiöld-Fiord) in the Lincoln Sea on the north-west coast of Greenland. 
Bay on the north coast of the island of Northeastern Territory of Svalbard archipelago.

Adolfbukta Bay in the very north of Bille Fjord, Spitsbergen.


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