Obruchev Vladimir Afanasyevich
(28.09.(10.10).1863 – 19.06.1956)
outstanding Russian geologist and geographer, writer, academician of
the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, honorary president of the
Geographical Society of the USSR, Hero
of Socialist Labor, winner of the V.I. Lenin Prize. Lenin,
two state awards of the USSR.
Born in the village of Klepenino, Rzhevsky district, Tver
province, in the family of a retired military man. After
graduating from the Vilensky real school in 1881 he entered the St.
Petersburg Mining Institute, from which he graduated in 1886.
In 1888 on the recommendation of I.V. Mushketov Obruchev
went to Irkutsk, where he occupied his first public office. From
this point on for many years he participated in various expeditions. In
the summer of 1890 Obruchev went from Irkutsk to the north to study
the gold-bearing region located in the basin of the Vitim and Olekma
following summer, he repeated the trip to the Olekma-Vitim mines,
and then received an unexpected offer from the Imperial Russian
Geographical Society to take part in the expedition of the famous
traveler Potanin, heading to China and South Tibet.
Within two years it covered 13,625 kilometers and conducted
geological surveys on almost every one of them. The
collected collection contains seven thousand samples, about 1200
prints of fossil animals and plants. He
collected fundamental information about the geography and geology of
Central Asia and in fact completed its study, continuing the work
begun by Russian researchers. In
fact, there are no more white spots in Central Asia.
Memorial plaque. Petersburg,
Obruchev arrived in St. Petersburg already world-famous traveler. His
letters from China, articles, travel sketches were published in
newspapers and magazines. The
Paris Academy of Sciences awarded him the PA award. Chikhachev. A
year later he received an award named after N.M. Przhevalsky,
and a year later - the highest award of the Imperial Russian
Geographical Society - the Konstantinovsky
gold medal. In
the years 1900-1901 according
to the results of his research, Obruchev published the fundamental
two-volume work “Central Asia, Northern China and Nanshan”. He
made a popular description of his trip to Central Asia only 45 years
later, having published the book From Kyakhta to Gulja in 1940.
In 1895 Obruchev went to Eastern Siberia as the head of the
mining party, whose task was to study the localities adjacent to the
Trans-Siberian Railway under construction.He dedicated this work
over three years.
In 1901 Obruchev accepted the offer of the director of the newly
opened Tomsk Technological Institute to take over the department of
geology and organize a mining department. Upon
arrival in Siberia, he conducted a survey in the Lensko-Vitim
gold-bearing area and made a geological survey of the Bodaibo River
that time, for eleven years, Obruchev devoted himself to teaching,
while not leaving his research trips. In
1905, 1906 and 1909, he made three trips to Xinjiang, where he
explored the articulation of the mountain systems of the Altai and
Tien Shan, which is key to understanding the geological structure of
the Asian continent.
In 1912 Obruchev moved from Tomsk to Moscow, where he wrote a
number of popular science works. In
1920, the scientist was elected professor in the department of
applied geology at the newly organized Moscow Mining Academy.
Working on scientific problems and engaging in teaching, Obruchev
did not make long journeys, but every year, during 1923–1928. traveled
to the Caucasus, to Kislovodsk, where he made excursions to the
surrounding mountains. In
1936, at the age of 73, he made a long trip to Altai, where he
examined the mercury deposit and the outlets of the marbles; the
latter were intended for the construction of the Moscow Metro.
Peru Obruchev, in addition to dozens of scientific works, owns a
large number of popular science books, among which the best are
Plutonium and, of course, Sannikov Land, which read more than one
generation of people. He
also wrote a number of biographical essays about Russian researchers
in Asia: Przhevalsky, Chersky, Mushketov,
He died in Zvenigorod, Moscow Region. He
was buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy
the south coast of Hooker Island archipelago
Franz Josef Land. Named
no later than 1955.