Papanin Ivan Dmitrievich
arctic researcher, doctor of geographical sciences, rear admiral,
of the Soviet Union.
Born in Sevastopol, in the family of a sailor. He
graduated from the district school with honors, at 12 he went to
work in the workshops of the Marine Plant.
In 1913 he went to Revel and entered the shipyard. In
World War I served in the Black Sea Fleet.
In 1918–1920 Papanin
was an active participant in the civil war in Ukraine and in the
the end of the civil war during 1923-1932.worked at the People's
Commissariat of Communications.
Papanin began his Arctic activity in 1932, becoming the head of
Bay" polar station on
Franz Josef Land; in
In 1937 he was appointed head of the North Pole drifting station
(NP-1), for participating in organizing and disembarking which he
was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union (Medal No. 37). The
organization of a research station in the Central Arctic Basin was a
natural stage in the study of the Arctic and the needs of the
Northern Sea Route. Without
information on the hydrometeorological conditions, the state and ice
drift in the Central Arctic, the ice forecast along the route
required for navigation and the weather forecast in the regions
adjacent to the Arctic were very difficult. The
views on other scientific problems related to ocean bathymetry,
water circulation, geophysical phenomena, and others were extremely
had a lot of glorious things to do, but this drift can still be
considered the main achievement of his life, which glorified him to
the whole world and made him the people's favorite in those years. Papanin's
book Life on the Ice has been reprinted many times. After
working at NP-1, he held various major economic posts, many of which
were directly related to Arctic expeditions.
In 1938, he was offered the post of deputy head of the Main Sea
perfectly the responsibility of such an appointment, Papanin
unsuccessfully tried to refuse, fearing that he could not cope. However,
life showed that the choice of leadership was correct: Papanin
proved himself as an outstanding leader and organizer. A
year later, he was appointed to the post of chief of the Central Sea
Route, which he held throughout the war until 1946. Under
his leadership, completely new principles of planning, organizing
and conducting Arctic navigation were developed and implemented in
the Glavsevmorput system. Their
implementation has made it possible to multiply the effectiveness of
the work of the entire Soviet North.
For the successful execution of the operation to
remove ice from the icebreaker steamer “G. Sedov”
in 1940 Papanin was awarded the second Gold Star medal (№3). During
the war years he was simultaneously authorized by the State Defense
Committee for Transportation in the North.
In 1948-1951 he
was appointed deputy director of the Institute of Oceanology of the
Academy of Sciences of the USSR for expeditions, and since 1951 -
head of the Department of Marine Expeditionary Work of the Academy
of Sciences of the USSR. At
the same time in the period 1952-1972. He
served as director of the Institute of Biology of Inland Waters of
the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and since 1945 he also served
as chairman of the Moscow branch of the Geographical Society of the
Papanin was repeatedly elected to party and state bodies: he was
a delegate to the 18th All-Union Conference of the
All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), a
member of the Central Auditing Commission, a deputy of the Supreme
Soviet of the USSR of the 1st and 2nd convocations.
His homeland awarded him 9 orders
of Lenin, the Order
of the October Revolution, 2 orders
of the Red Banner, orders of Nakhimov
1 degree, the Red
Banner of Labor, the Red
Star, and many
He was buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy
Maud Bay on the Taimyr Peninsula. Named
by the winterers of the polar station "Cape Chelyuskin" in 1937.