Papanin Ivan Dmitrievich 

Soviet arctic researcher, doctor of geographical sciences, rear admiral, twice Hero of the Soviet Union. 
Born in Sevastopol, in the family of a sailor. He graduated from the district school with honors, at 12 he went to work in the workshops of the Marine Plant. 
In 1913 he went to Revel and entered the shipyard. In World War I served in the Black Sea Fleet. 
In 1918–1920 Papanin was an active participant in the civil war in Ukraine and in the Crimea. After the end of the civil war during 1923-1932.worked at the People's Commissariat of Communications. 
Papanin began his Arctic activity in 1932, becoming the head of the "Tikhaya Bay" polar station on Franz Josef Land; in 1934–1935 He headed the polar station "Cape Chelyuskin".  
In 1937  he was appointed head of the North Pole drifting station (NP-1), for participating in organizing and disembarking which he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union (Medal No. 37). The organization of a research station in the Central Arctic Basin was a natural stage in the study of the Arctic and the needs of the Northern Sea Route. Without information on the hydrometeorological conditions, the state and ice drift in the Central Arctic, the ice forecast along the route required for navigation and the weather forecast in the regions adjacent to the Arctic were very difficult. The views on other scientific problems related to ocean bathymetry, water circulation, geophysical phenomena, and others were extremely scarce. Papanin had a lot of glorious things to do, but this drift can still be considered the main achievement of his life, which glorified him to the whole world and made him the people's favorite in those years. Papanin's book Life on the Ice has been reprinted many times. After working at NP-1, he held various major economic posts, many of which were directly related to Arctic expeditions. 
In 1938, he was offered the post of deputy head of the Main Sea Route. Understanding perfectly the responsibility of such an appointment, Papanin unsuccessfully tried to refuse, fearing that he could not cope. However, life showed that the choice of leadership was correct: Papanin proved himself as an outstanding leader and organizer. A year later, he was appointed to the post of chief of the Central Sea Route, which he held throughout the war until 1946. Under his leadership, completely new principles of planning, organizing and conducting Arctic navigation were developed and implemented in the Glavsevmorput system. Their implementation has made it possible to multiply the effectiveness of the work of the entire Soviet North. 

For the successful execution of the operation to remove ice from the icebreaker steamer “G. Sedov” in 1940 Papanin was awarded the second Gold Star medal (№3).  During the war years he was simultaneously authorized by the State Defense Committee for Transportation in the North. 
In 1948-1951 he was appointed deputy director of the Institute of Oceanology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR for expeditions, and since 1951 - head of the Department of Marine Expeditionary Work of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. At the same time in the period 1952-1972. He served as director of the Institute of Biology of Inland Waters of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and since 1945 he also served as chairman of the Moscow branch of the Geographical Society of the USSR. 
Papanin was repeatedly elected to party and state bodies: he was a delegate to the 18th All-Union Conference of the
All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), a member of the Central Auditing Commission, a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of the 1st and 2nd convocations. 
His homeland awarded him 9 orders of Lenin, the Order of the October Revolution, 2 orders of the Red Banner, orders of Nakhimov 1 degree, the Red Banner of Labor, the Red Star, and many medals. 
He was buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy cemetery. 
Cape in Maud Bay on the Taimyr Peninsula. 
Named by the winterers of the polar station "Cape Chelyuskin" in 1937.


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