Parry William Edward 
(19.12.1790-08.07.1855)


English seaman, an outstanding arctic explorer. 
Born in Bes in the family of a medic. At the age of 13 he joined the navy in the rank of midshipman, served on the flagship of Admiral Cornwallis, sailed in the Channels, the North and Baltic Seas, in 1810 became a lieutenant. Soon Parry made his first acquaintance with the Arctic: on the military frigate "Alexandria" he was guarding the whaling ships in England in the waters of Spitsbergen. However, the Arctic travel, which brought Parry worldwide fame, began in 1818, with participation in the expedition of John Ross. It was the first expedition in the XIX century, which aimed to search for the Northwest Passage. She opened a series of similar to her, mostly English, expeditions, which played a huge role in the study of the Canadian Arctic archipelago. 
The ships of the Isabella expedition, which was commanded by Ross himself, and the “Alexander” commanded by Parry left England in late May and, after passing the Davis Strait, entered the Baffin Sea. Climbing north to the Strait of Smith, turned, considering it, like 200 years ago, W. Baffin  the Gulf. The same thing happened in the Strait of Lancaster. Ross saw the high mountains, which he named after his friend, the official of the Admiralty Crocker, and this mirage made him turn back: he considered the strait as a bay. Parry naturally complied, although he did not agree with this decision: the swell coming from the north-west assumed the existence of a vast open water space in this direction. After a reconnaissance survey of the eastern shore of Baffin Land, the expedition returned to England in mid-November. 
The secretary of the Admiralty, omnipotent J. Barrow, insisted on the organization in the following 1819 of a new naval expedition on the ships “Hekla” and “Gripper”, at the head of which Parry was put. Besides her, a land party was sent under the leadership of J. Franklin, who in 1818 participated in an unsuccessful expedition of D. Buchan to the North Pole. Young ambitious sailors managed to prove in the Admiralty that the failures of last year were caused not only by objective, but also by subjective reasons, namely, by insufficiently decisive guidance. Important support was provided by J. Barrow. The commander of the "Grayper" was Lieutenant M. Lidden, part of the Parry expedition included F. Beachy, E. Sabin and James Ross who later became world famous. In the case of a successful solution of the problem, Parry had to go to Kamchatka and transfer the materials of the expedition to the representative of the Russian government for their quickest delivery to London. 
In general, Parry met his hopes, although he could not open the passage. The expedition was able to move far to the west and largely clarify the configuration of the straits and islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. At the beginning of August 1819, "Hekla" and "Gripper" passed the Lancaster Strait, proving that the mountains seen by Ross are a mirage. Next opened westbound passages Barrow and Melville (named Parry after the first Lord Admiralty Robert Saunders Dundas, second Viscount Melville now Viscount Melville) and meridional passages Wellington (after the graph, the field marshal Arthur Wellington, one of the winners Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo) (to the north) and Prince Regent (to the south). Extensive stretches of coastal lands washed by the straits, which later turned out to be islands, were mapped. The most western of the islands reached was also named after R. Melville. Parry already believed that the Northwest Passage was open, but soon powerful ice was forced to turn south. In the Strait of Regent, the sailors discovered abnormal deviations of the magnetic needle of the compass, which was caused by the proximity of the magnetic pole, which James Ross managed to reach in the western coast of the Buthia Peninsula ten years later. 
Having encountered heavy ice in the Prince Regent Strait, the ships turned north again. By this time, the Strait of Barrow cleared of ice, and, passing the Wellington Strait, travelers crossed 110°W, which gave them the right to receive a premium of 5,000 pounds sterling. She was appointed by the government in 1743, then canceled and restored shortly before the campaign of Parry. 
Then the ice again blocked the way, and the expedition was forced to hibernate near the southern coast of Melville Island. To get closer to the coast, the sailors had to cut a channel more than two miles long in the ice. 
Wintering was quite good. Thanks to a well-organized life, nutrition, and sanitation, only one person was lost, which was unprecedented at that time. In the spring of 1820  Parry made a two-week overland expedition, inspecting Melville Island. Only at the end of August did the courts manage to free themselves. They made an attempt to continue sailing to the west, discovered the Banks Island, but for 114° path to the west was closed, and Parry made the difficult decision to return. Six days later we reached the Lancaster Strait, and on October 30 we arrived in England, where Parry was greeted as a winner. Scientifically, the expedition, known in the history of Arctic research as the “First Parry Expedition”, was crowned with impressive success. In addition to surveying the coasts of the islands, based on reliable astronomical determinations, meteorological observations, determinations of gravity, observations of ebbs and flows, rich zoological and botanical collections were collected. Parry was made a Commodore and awarded the title of honorary citizen of England. 
After this expedition, Parry considered that it would be easier to find a passage from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific not through the islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, but further south along the coast of the continent. Already the next 1821  he tried to implement this plan. On the same ships ("Hekla" this time commanded by Lieutenant G. Lane), an expedition of 118 men left England in the second half of June. Overcoming the heavy ice of the Hudson Channel, entered the Fox Basin. After several attempts to find passes to the west, the expedition was forced to hibernate near the southern coast of the Melville Peninsula. At the beginning of July 1822, the sailors continued their voyage, opening as a result the strait, named after their glorious ships by the Strait of Fury and Hekla. With the opening of this strait, which is the only exit from the Fox Basin to the west, the island position of Baffin Island has become clear. But that one way out was impassable that year, and Parry was forced to get up for the second wintering. The following year  he planned to send "Hekla" to England, and try to go west to "Fury". However, life decided otherwise. The health of the crews, undermined by two winters, forced Parry to abandon this plan. In the fall of 1823, Parry's Second Expedition returned to England. 
A young ambitious talented sailor did not give up his intentions to find the Northwest Passage. His friend Franklin was in solidarity with him. The following year, on the proposal of Parry, the Admiralty organized a large-scale expedition consisting of three detachments that were supposed to conduct research from various sides: from the east from the Baffin sea of  Parry, from the west from the Bering Strait of F.
Beachy and from the south Franklin ground detachment. 
The first outfit was Parry, who left England in May 1824. At his disposal were the same ships, only this time he commanded the "Hekla", and the "Fury" G. Goppner. Parry decided to try out the third version of the Northwest Passage through the Prince Regent Strait, which he opened in the first voyage. However, he failed to carry out his plans. Due to heavy ice, only on September 10, the expedition was able to reach the starting point of its march through the Canadian archipelago - Prince Regent Strait. The ice-bound ships embarked on a wintering off the coast of Baffin Land in the northernmost part of the strait. During the wintering period, which lasted ten months, Parry surveyed most of the east coast of the strait and partly the west. In the summer of 1825, the ice dragged ships north to the Strait of Barrow. Repeatedly, they ran aground, receiving serious damage, which, eventually, led the Fury to a complete disrepair, and had to be abandoned. Not being able to move to the west, Parry decided on the remaining ship to return to England, where the expedition arrived safely on October 12. Before heading home, Parry set up a food base on the southeast coast of Somerset, later nicknamed “Fury Storehouse”. 
Seven years later this base saved the expedition of John Ross, who was forced to stay in the Arctic for the fourth wintering, from certain death.

 

"Fury" and "Hekla" in Prince regent Strait


"Parry's Third Expedition" ended his attempts to open the Northwest Passage. Despite the setback, he was firmly convinced of its existence. 
After returning from the third expedition, Parry became interested in the idea of reaching the North Pole on ice. On the tested “Hekla” in the spring of 1827, he went to Spitsbergen, set up a base on its northern coast and, on June 21, accompanied by 27 people with two sledges mounted on steel runners, and with 61 days of food supplies went to the pole. Movement on the strongly humorous ice, freaked out by numerous streaks, was painful. When it turned out that the ice was moving south at a speed of 7 km per day, Parry realized the unattainability of his goal. July 27, with a mark of 82° 45'N, Which at that time was a record, polar explorers turned back. Parry succeeded in overtaking only in 1876 by A. Markham, who reached 83° 20' 26"N in the American sector. 
This expedition ended the arctic stage of Parry's life. The following years he served on the coast, in 1852 he received the rank of Rear Admiral. 
In 1855 during a trip to Germany, Parry became seriously ill and soon died in the Ems resort.
 Davenport house (former hospital cemetery) Greenwich Korolevsky district Greenwich Greater London, England is buried. 
Archipelago in the northwestern Canadian Arctic archipelago. 
An island in the archipelago of the Seven Islands in the north of the Svalbard archipelago. 
The peninsula in the north of the island of Ellesmere in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 
A peninsula in the Amundsen Bay in the eastern Beaufort Sea and a cape in the north of this peninsula. Opened and named by J. Richardson in 1826. 
Cape on Heiss Peninsula, Greenland West Coast, Baffin Sea. 
Cape on the east coast of Greenland in the Greenland Sea. 
Cape in the northeast of King William Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. 
Cape on the east coast of Fox Bay.

Mountain in the northeast of Ellesmere Island on the banks of the Robson Strait.

The mountain in the western part of the island of Lag in the Land of Gustav V , the island of Northeastern Land, Spitsbergen. The coordinates are 80° 10'N   18° 00'E.

A bank east of the Laponia peninsula in the north of the island of Western Spitsbergen.

Cove on the southern coast of the Kent Peninsula in northern Canada. 
Bay on the east coast of the Melville Peninsula in the bay Fox.

Cove (Port Parry) on the northeast coast of King William Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

 

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