Parry William Edward
seaman, an outstanding arctic explorer.
Born in Bes in the family of a medic. At
the age of 13 he joined the navy in the rank of midshipman, served
on the flagship of Admiral Cornwallis, sailed in the Channels, the
North and Baltic Seas, in 1810 became a lieutenant. Soon
Parry made his first acquaintance with the Arctic: on the military
frigate "Alexandria" he was guarding the whaling ships in England in
the waters of Spitsbergen. However,
the Arctic travel, which brought Parry worldwide fame, began in
1818, with participation in the expedition of John Ross. It
was the first expedition in the XIX century, which aimed to search
for the Northwest Passage. She
opened a series of similar to her, mostly English, expeditions,
which played a huge role in the study of the Canadian Arctic
The ships of the Isabella expedition, which was commanded by Ross
himself, and the “Alexander” commanded by Parry left England in late
May and, after passing the Davis Strait, entered the Baffin
north to the Strait
of Smith, turned, considering it, like 200 years ago, W.
Baffin the Gulf. The
same thing happened in the Strait
of Lancaster. Ross
saw the high mountains, which he named after his friend, the
official of the Admiralty Crocker, and this mirage made him turn
back: he considered the strait as a bay. Parry
naturally complied, although he did not agree with this decision:
the swell coming from the north-west assumed the existence of a vast
open water space in this direction. After
a reconnaissance survey of the eastern shore of Baffin Land, the
expedition returned to England in mid-November.
The secretary of the Admiralty, omnipotent J.
Barrow, insisted on the organization in the following 1819 of a
new naval expedition on the ships “Hekla” and “Gripper”, at the head
of which Parry was put. Besides
her, a land party was sent under the leadership of J.
Franklin, who in 1818 participated in an unsuccessful expedition
of D. Buchan to the North Pole. Young
ambitious sailors managed to prove in the Admiralty that the
failures of last year were caused not only by objective, but also by
subjective reasons, namely, by insufficiently decisive guidance. Important
support was provided by J.
commander of the "Grayper" was Lieutenant M. Lidden, part of the
Parry expedition included F.
Sabin and James
Ross who later became
world famous. In
the case of a successful solution of the problem, Parry had to go to
Kamchatka and transfer the materials of the expedition to the
representative of the Russian government for their quickest delivery
In general, Parry met his hopes, although he could not open the
expedition was able to move far to the west and largely clarify the
configuration of the straits and islands of the Canadian Arctic
the beginning of August 1819, "Hekla" and "Gripper" passed the
Lancaster Strait, proving that the mountains seen by Ross are a
opened westbound passages
Barrow and Melville (named
Parry after the first Lord Admiralty Robert Saunders Dundas, second
Viscount Melville now Viscount Melville) and meridional passages
Wellington (after the
graph, the field marshal Arthur Wellington, one of the winners
Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo) (to the north) and Prince
Regent (to the
stretches of coastal lands washed by the straits, which later turned
out to be islands, were mapped. The
most western of the islands reached was also
named after R. Melville. Parry
already believed that the Northwest Passage was open, but soon
powerful ice was forced to turn south. In
the Strait of Regent, the sailors discovered abnormal deviations of
the magnetic needle of the compass, which was caused by the
proximity of the magnetic pole, which James Ross managed to reach in
the western coast of the Buthia
Peninsula ten years
Having encountered heavy ice in the Prince Regent Strait, the
ships turned north again. By
this time, the Strait of Barrow cleared of ice, and, passing the
Wellington Strait, travelers crossed 110°W,
which gave them the right to receive a premium of 5,000 pounds
was appointed by the government in 1743, then canceled and restored
shortly before the campaign of Parry.
Then the ice again blocked the way, and the expedition was forced
to hibernate near the southern coast of
Melville Island. To
get closer to the coast, the sailors had to cut a channel more than
two miles long in the ice.
Wintering was quite good. Thanks
to a well-organized life, nutrition, and sanitation, only one person
was lost, which was unprecedented at that time. In
the spring of 1820 Parry made a two-week overland expedition,
inspecting Melville Island. Only
at the end of August did the courts manage to free themselves. They
made an attempt to continue sailing to the west, discovered the Banks
Island, but for 114°
path to the west was closed, and Parry made the
difficult decision to return. Six
days later we reached the Lancaster Strait, and on October 30 we
arrived in England, where Parry was greeted as a winner. Scientifically,
the expedition, known in the history of Arctic research as the
“First Parry Expedition”, was crowned with impressive success. In
addition to surveying the coasts of the islands, based on reliable
astronomical determinations, meteorological observations,
determinations of gravity, observations of ebbs and flows, rich
zoological and botanical collections were collected. Parry
was made a Commodore and awarded the title of honorary citizen of
After this expedition, Parry considered that it would be easier
to find a passage from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific not through
the islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, but further south
along the coast of the continent. Already
the next 1821 he tried to implement this plan. On
the same ships ("Hekla" this time commanded by Lieutenant G. Lane),
an expedition of 118 men left England in the second half of June. Overcoming
the heavy ice of the Hudson
Channel, entered the Fox Basin. After
several attempts to find passes to the west, the expedition was
forced to hibernate near the southern coast of the
Melville Peninsula. At
the beginning of July 1822, the sailors continued their voyage,
opening as a result the strait, named after their glorious ships by
the Strait of Fury and Hekla. With
the opening of this strait, which is the only exit from the Fox
Basin to the west, the island position of Baffin Island has become
that one way out was impassable that year, and Parry was forced to
get up for the second
following year he planned to send "Hekla" to England, and try to go
west to "Fury". However,
life decided otherwise. The
health of the crews, undermined by two winters, forced Parry to
abandon this plan. In
the fall of 1823, Parry's Second Expedition returned to England.
A young ambitious talented sailor did not give up his intentions
to find the Northwest Passage. His
friend Franklin was in solidarity with him. The
following year, on the proposal of Parry, the Admiralty organized a
large-scale expedition consisting of three detachments that were
supposed to conduct research from various sides: from the east from
the Baffin sea of Parry, from the west from the Bering Strait of F.
from the south Franklin ground detachment.
The first outfit was Parry, who left England in May 1824. At
his disposal were the same ships, only this time he commanded the
"Hekla", and the "Fury" G. Goppner. Parry
decided to try out the third version of the Northwest Passage
through the Prince Regent Strait, which he opened in the first
he failed to carry out his plans. Due
to heavy ice, only on September 10, the expedition was able to reach
the starting point of its march through the Canadian archipelago -
Prince Regent Strait. The
ice-bound ships embarked on a wintering off the coast of Baffin Land
in the northernmost part of the strait. During
the wintering period, which lasted ten months, Parry surveyed most
of the east coast of the strait and partly the west. In
the summer of 1825, the ice dragged ships north to the Strait of
they ran aground, receiving serious damage, which, eventually, led
the Fury to a complete disrepair, and had to be abandoned. Not
being able to move to the west, Parry decided on the remaining ship
to return to England, where the expedition arrived safely on October
heading home, Parry set up a food base on the southeast coast of
Somerset, later nicknamed “Fury Storehouse”. Seven
years later this base saved the expedition of John Ross, who was
forced to stay in the Arctic for the fourth wintering, from certain
"Fury" and "Hekla" in Prince regent Strait
"Parry's Third Expedition" ended his attempts to open the
Northwest Passage. Despite
the setback, he was firmly convinced of its existence.
After returning from the third expedition, Parry became
interested in the idea of reaching the North Pole on ice. On
the tested “Hekla” in the spring of 1827, he went to Spitsbergen,
set up a base on its northern coast and, on June 21, accompanied by
27 people with two sledges mounted on steel runners, and with 61
days of food supplies went to the pole. Movement
on the strongly humorous ice, freaked out by numerous streaks, was
it turned out that the ice was moving south at a speed of 7 km per
day, Parry realized the unattainability of his goal. July
27, with a mark of 82° 45'N,
Which at that time was a record, polar explorers turned back. Parry
succeeded in overtaking only
in 1876 by A.
Markham, who reached 83° 20'
the American sector.
This expedition ended the arctic stage of Parry's life. The
following years he served on the coast, in 1852 he received the rank
of Rear Admiral.
In 1855 during a trip to Germany, Parry became seriously ill and
soon died in the Ems resort. Davenport house
(former hospital cemetery) Greenwich Korolevsky district Greenwich
Greater London, England is buried.
the northwestern Canadian Arctic archipelago.
An island in
the archipelago of the Seven Islands in the north of the Svalbard
The peninsula in
the north of the island of Ellesmere in the Canadian Arctic
A peninsula in
the Amundsen Bay in the eastern Beaufort Sea and a cape in
the north of this peninsula. Opened
and named by J.
Richardson in 1826.
Heiss Peninsula, Greenland West Coast, Baffin Sea.
the east coast of Greenland in the Greenland Sea.
the northeast of King William Island in the Canadian Arctic
the east coast of Fox Bay.
the northeast of Ellesmere Island on the banks of the Robson Strait.
The mountain in
the western part of the island of Lag in the Land of Gustav V ,
the island of Northeastern Land, Spitsbergen. The
coordinates are 80°
10'N 18° 00'E.
A bank east
of the Laponia peninsula in the north of the island of Western
the southern coast of the Kent Peninsula in northern Canada.
Parry) on the northeast coast of King William Island in the Canadian
the east coast of the Melville Peninsula in the bay Fox.