Born in Bury, Lancashire. Father - Robert Peel, a businessman engaged in cotton production, Baronet.
He graduated from Harrow School and Christ Church College, Oxford University. His political activities began in 1809 with the election to parliament of the Tory party. In 1812 he became Secretary of State for Ireland, in 1822-1827 and 1828-1830. He served as Minister of the Interior and pursued a policy of repression against participants in the cross-unrest.
Under the pressure of the national liberation movement in Ireland in April 1829, Peel passed a law on the emancipation of Catholics, under which they received passive suffrage. In 1829 he founded the municipal police in London. In honor of Peel (on his behalf Robert - diminutive Bobby), the English policemen dubbed the "Bobby".
In 1834-1835 and in 1841-1846 Peel headed the cabinet. The last Peel government was one of the most brilliant in the 19th century; it included six former and future prime ministers, four future governors of India. In 1844 he secured the adoption of the act, which established a firm standard for metal security of banknotes. In June 1846 carrying out a program of supporters of trade, free from government intervention, carried out the repeal of the grain laws in the interests of the industrial bourgeoisie , after which tariffs on the import of many types of food and raw materials were significantly reduced. Peel's events provoked sharp discontent of the Tory protectionists and led to the split of the Tory party. Proponents of Pilas (saws) became part of the Whig party , which was transformed in the mid- nineteenth century , called the Liberal Party.
In the area of foreign policy, especially in relations with France and the United States, the Peel government pursued a firm but conciliatory policy. Under him, in 1842, the controversial border issue between the state of Maine and the province of New Brunswick in Canada was resolved. The 1846 Oregon lands treaty ended another border dispute between the United States and Great Britain.
In 1846 Peel resigned and subsequently refrained from participating in the opposition party struggle.
Died in London as a result of an accident: fell off a horse while riding in Green Park. Buried in Staffordshire, Lichfield District, Drayton Bassett, St. Peter's graveyard.
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