English whaler, arctic explorer.
Born in Peterhead, Scotland, in the family of the whaling
at the age of 12 years he made his first sea voyage on the whaling
ship Alert, commanded by his father William Penny the Elder. He
took part in at least three trips on this ship to the Greenland Sea,
where his father continued to hunt with great success, despite the
fact that most of the whalers had already moved to carry out their
fishing in the Davis
There is no official information about what Penny was doing for
several years after 1823, and it is unknown when his first voyage
took place in the Davis Strait. In
1829 he was promoted to captain and fished around Durban Island off
the coast of Baffin Land.
Creative nature Penny constantly, from a young age forced him to
think about finding new places for fishing.
In 1832 as Assistant Captain Simpson on the Traveler ship, after
an unsuccessful hunt in the Pond Inlet area (north-eastern part of
Baffin Earth), he convinced Simpson to reach Lancaster
Strait, where they managed to kill many whales.
The first opportunity to satisfy their interest in research
presented to him in 1833. He
was again an assistant to Captain Simpson, who managed to kill more
than twenty whales that season, which was a great success. Since
there was still time before the end of the season, Simpson visited
the Eskimos on the coast of Baffin Land to gather information about
the possibility of whaling in new territories in an uncharted area
further south. The
Eskimos reported the existence of a bay near where there were many
whales, and Simpson decided to send Penny on a small ship with two
locals to inspect the area. They
left Simpson's ship on September 22 and soon discovered the bay,
which undoubtedly was Exeter Sound, located south of Exeter Bay. They
sailed 50 km along it, finding nothing of interest to them when the
headwind forced them to turn back. So
his first attempt to examine these areas turned out to be a failure.
Two years later, in 1835 Penny's abilities were highly
appreciated and he was given command of the Neptune ship. His
first voyage as a captain took place during one of the hardest
seasons in whaling history in the Canadian Arctic, but he returned
unscathed, despite being several times dead.
Penny was a supporter of the idea of James
Ross about organizing
a permanent whaling base on Baffin Earth or adjacent areas. During
his voyages, he tried to conduct research on choosing a site for the
base and searching for new areas for fishing.
However, the development of new waters was associated with great
difficulties, since the main responsibility of the captain in
relation to the ship owner and crew was whaling. If
the hunt went well, as it turned out in 1838, there was only time to
gather information among the Eskimos and for short research trips
like the one he carried out in 1833. Unsuccessful
in terms of catch season, as a rule, was associated with poor
weather conditions, which minimized the possibility of developing
new areas. The
only right decision Penny believed the desire to collect information
from local residents.
In 1839 Penny learned from the Eskimos about the existence of a
large bay in the south of Baffin Earth. The
voyage of 1840 ended with its discovery - it was the bay, called
Penny by the Gulf of Hogarth, now called Cumberland. Later,
this bay became a place of successful whaling, but that year the
discovery of Penny was not appreciated.Since from a financial point
of view, the voyage of 1840 turned out to be unprofitable, the ship
was sold, and Penny was fired.
Again he was given a ship only in 1844. In
the hall. Cumberland,
he got seven whales, which was considered a great success, and in
1845 - nineteen.
In 1847 Penny was involved in solving the problem of searching
for the missing J.
which set off in search of the Northwest Passage. The
expedition started in 1845, and no one showed concern about them
until 1847, when the first plans for organizing its searches
ships were ordered to inspect the surroundings, and Lady
Franklin offered them
Penny immediately enthusiastically joined in the search. He
can rightly be called the first to go in search of Franklin, because
he made an attempt to penetrate the
for this purpose was already in 1847, but due to heavy ice it
was not able to move further than 78°N.
Penny's fascination with search problems caused the whaling
masters to be dissatisfied, forcing him to petition for dismissal.
New work Penny found as the captain of the ship from Dundee
only once set sail on this vessel, and again his main goal was to
attempt to enter the Lancaster Strait in search of Franklin’s ships,
which he undertook in collaboration with the captain of the Truelove
ship Parker. And
again they did not succeed in this success, but they found deposits
of coal on the island of Bylot.
Shortly after his return home, Penny appealed to Lady Franklin
and the Naval Ministry with the request to entrust him with the
command of the search expedition. Lady
Franklin immediately began to sympathize with him, and F.
Beaufort drew general
attention to the fact that "it is well known that Mr. Penny showed
courage and prudence in many situations" and advised "to show wisdom
by giving him the opportunity he asks for". After
some thought, the Naval Ministry provided Penny with the command of
an official expedition from two ships, "Lady Franklin" and "Sophia". He
sailed from spring 1850 to autumn 1851, wintered on Cornwallis
near the fleet of four G.
Austin ships and a
small private expedition of John Ross. Penny
got along very badly with both captains, she and Ross had a strong
dislike for each other for a long time, and with Austin they
constantly argued about the need to examine the Wellington Strait. In
collaboration with the people of Penny, the location of Franklin's
first wintering on Beachy
following spring, we surveyed the coastline on a sleigh at a
distance of hundreds of miles. In
the summer, the expeditions continued their search on the ships. Austin,
who examined the eastern and western directions and the southern
shores of the Lancaster
Strait did not find other traces of Franklin, Penny, moving north along the
Wellington Strait, found convincing evidence that the missing
expedition came here (which was indeed true, although Franklin did
not stay long in this area). On
the island of Bailey Hamilton, Penny discovered a wooden bar made of
elm, which at first did not attach much importance, but later this
object was an important proof that Franklin stopped in that
Penny was convinced that Franklin went north into the ocean, but it
was very difficult to swim there. Penny
headed back with his ships; he could do nothing more, especially
since provisions remained only for a week.
When the collaboration was completed, after negotiations between
Austin and Penny on August 11, 1851 all three expeditions headed
the Admiralty and the public were somewhat disappointed by the early
return, it was recognized that the expeditions had accomplished
then a fierce dispute broke out between Penny and Austin about the
results of their research, the reasons for returning home and,
finally, directly about the subject of negotiations on the last day
of August 11. It
all began on September 12, 1851, when Penny immediately after his
return to London convinced the Admiralty to immediately send the
steamer to resume searches in the Wellington Strait and offered his
services as a captain. In
subsequent correspondence, he claimed that he did not want to stop
searching, and vice versa, asked Austin on August 11 to provide him
with a steamer to resume the study of the strait. To
this Austin provided a documentary evidence proving the opposite; Penny
himself wrote that day that “There is no need for further research
on Wellington Strait. Everything
that was possible, we have already done". In
his defense, Penny claimed that, as Austin was well known, he was
not going to explore the strait, but wanted to explore the territory
spoke of his verbal requests for a steamer and the continuation of
the search, cited witnesses who confirmed this. Reciprocal
accusations began: each of them responded to the claim with a
complaint, letters to the Admiralty were accompanied by letters to
the press, and soon the conflict acquired a national scale. The
supporters of each side formed two opposing and fiercely-minded
a result, in October - November 1851, a special committee was
appointed from five senior naval officials, including three veterans
to work in the Arctic: U.
Back and F.
investigate this case. The
Committee, which was given the name of the Arctic Committee, held a
meeting for 12 days, after listening to the testimony of both
captains, their main deputies and other polar explorers, and
eventually published a 250-page report containing the results of
meetings and discoveries made during their process. When,
finally, on December 5, the Committee’s conclusion was made public,
it became clear to everyone that Penny was defeated. The
committee chose to ignore all Penny's oral negotiations with Austin,
and reasoned that "Captain Austin could have reached a conclusion on
the written reports of Captain Penny, which were as specific and
unambiguous as possible". According
to the Committee’s conclusion, Penny’s testimony did not confirm the
fact that he asked Austin to provide him with a steamer, moreover,
there was a hint that Penny started inflating the whole scandal on
purpose only after the expeditions returned home, he noted that
everyone was disappointed with their modest achievements. The
next blow for Penny was the Committee’s conclusion that one of the
expeditions had to stay for another two weeks in the strait in order
to obtain information about its suitability for navigation, and that
this responsibility rested entirely on Penny. However,
the conclusion also contained some consolation for Penny, since it
expressed praise and thanks to both captains for their work and
committee found their return home a reasonable and reasonable
step.However, the general impression was that Penny’s arguments were
rejected in favor of Austin’s testimony.
Despite the official conclusion, in the conflict between Austin
and Penny, Lady Franklin, J.
Osborne, and many
others were on the side of the latter. In
their opinion, the conclusion of the Arctic Committee, despite the
fact that it was supported by numerous documentary evidence, was
clearly biased and was compiled in a situation of hostility towards
main mistake of the Committee was that it concentrated only on the
fact that the ship was not sent when it was necessary. But
he did not take into account the whole role of Penny in this
expedition, as well as the fact that this man was the most devoted
to the search for Franklin, full of enthusiasm and energy, sincerely
and wholeheartedly dreamed of doing everything possible for the
success of their common enterprise. This
was noted by all members of the expedition.
By and large, neither Austin nor Penny suffered much from this
conflict and its results: Austin continued his successful military
career, and Penny returned to whaling.
Despite the criticism, which was generously bestowed on him by
Austin and Ross, Penny deserved great popularity among compatriots,
and the press closely followed his further endeavors. Penny
began to implement his long-standing idea: the creation of a whaling
base in the hall. Cumberland. His
actions were even more active when he learned that the Americans
were ahead of him. Penny
has united many enterprising Aberdeen businessmen who founded the
Royal Arctic Company. Its
director was W. Hogarth, Penny received the post of production
one of the islands in the bay, a settlement was organized in which
Penny spent several years. Penny's
great merit was that he was not only concerned with the problems of
paid great attention to the education and spiritual development of
the local population, and sought from the church the organization in
the settlement of a missionary post.
In 1861 Penny sailed as a captain on the Polynia steamer from
act has caused outrage among its Aberdeen owners. In
1862 he was dismissed.
After his departure the Company did not last long. Due
to financial problems, the ships were sold, and Aberdeen ceased to
be a whaling port.
At the end of his career, Penny returned to his native Peterhead. In
1863 he headed the ship "Queen", which led whaling in the Hudson
spent quite a bit of time there and stayed for the winter in
Penny spent the last 25 years of his life in seclusion in
Aberdeen, where he died.
the south of Baffin Land.
A bay in
the southwest of the island of Victoria in the Canadian Arctic
Bathurst Island and the Grinnell Peninsula of Devon Island in the
Canadian Arctic Archipelago.