Perovsky Vasily Alekseevich 
(09(20).02.1795–08(20).12.1857)


Russian military leader, Earl, General. 
Born in Ukraine in the Chernihiv estate of Pochep, owned by Count A.K. Razumovsky. He was his bastard son from M. M. Sobolevskaya, who served in various positions in the graph. Surname Perovsky went from the suburban village of Perov, which was the estate Razumovsky. 
Perovsky studied in Moscow in a private pension. At the age of 17, he graduated from Moscow University, and then the Muravyevsk College for Columnists, became a lieutenant. From the beginning of the war of 1812, he was in the thick of battle, was an adjutant to the army commander General of Infantry Miloradovich. In the battle of Borodino, he was torn off a part of the middle finger of his hand (later, embarrassed by this, he wore a long golden thimble on that finger). Carrying out the commission of Miloradovich in occupied Moscow, Perovsky was captivated by Marshal Davout. While in France, he fled from the Orleans camp to Paris in 1814, when Russian troops had already entered there. He continued his service in the Life Guard Izmailovsky regiment. 
Perovsky belonged to future Decembrists, was a member of the Union of Welfare, but later did not participate in other organizations of the Decembrists.Soon, being already in the rank of colonel at the post of director of the office of the maritime headquarters, he became adjutant to the Grand Duke Nikolai Pavlovich. During the uprising of the Decembrists was with him, was wounded in the back with a log. Later he participated in the Russian-Turkish war, in 1828 he was seriously wounded in the chest, awarded the Order of St. George the 4th degree. In 1829  he became adjutant general, and in 1833 he received his first appointment as Orenburg military governor and corps commander. 
The time of the governorship of Perovsky was recognized by contemporaries as a period of development and prosperity of the Orenburg region. He managed to create, as they say, his team, a team of assistants and like-minded people, but not just supporting or guessing what he thinks about this issue, but those who were in charge of the Fatherland and the Orenburg region, were able to submit an original draft to the governor’s office. judgment. Among Perovsky's entourage in the provincial office and other institutions there were many very talented and educated people: the guard officer I.V. Vitkevich, civilian officials, famous scientists, researchers N.V. and Y.V. Khanykovs, V.I. Dahl, F.K. Zan and others. 
Perovsky's progressive transformations touched upon the most diverse spheres of the region’s life. 
He developed trade, supported the local merchants, did a lot to mitigate the fate of the political exiles, among whom were A.N. Plescheev, N.V. Khanykov, T.G. Shevchenko and others. 
Perovskiy's efforts and energy in 1836 created a fortified line in the east of the province, which made it possible to prevent the raids of nomads. The line, eighteen miles long, was a six foot high earthen rampart, and a moat of the same depth was dug near it. At the same time, three potash, equestrian and bee plants were erected in the province. 
Under Perovsky  cardinal changes took place in Orenburg itself. The Caravan Sarai was erected, which became a kind of hotel for traveling Muslims. Thanks to Perovsky, the author agreed to be A.P. Bryullov, who created the construction project, which became a masterpiece of architecture and a symbol of Orenburg. In the center of the city at the expense of the government was built a mosque. The city became a place where various religions and peoples lived together peacefully. 
When Perovsky arrived in Orenburg, the city was still very small, mostly wooden houses, there were many dugouts, some of which were in a dilapidated state. Perovsky set the task to clear the city, especially its central part, from these miserable buildings. In the liberated territories began to build mostly state-owned stone buildings. It is no coincidence that at the beginning of the 20th century, an outstanding local historian, PN Stolpyansky noted that three-quarters of all the remarkable buildings in Orenburg were built under Perovsky. Today they are the pride of the city. 
Under Perovsky, a start was made to illuminate the streets of Orenburg: the first lanterns appeared, for which hemp oil was used. Under him, the first gardens in the city appeared, flowerbeds were laid out in the area of Karavan - Saray. In 1835 a water supply system appeared. Water from the Urals entered the pool in the town square, from where residents could pick it up with barrels for free and deliver it to their homes. When in 1842 Perovsky temporarily ceased to be governor, the water supply system quickly became unusable, however, upon returning, he achieved that the water supply system resumed his work. Perovsky first made an attempt to build a permanent bridge over the Urals. 
At the initiative of Perovsky, significant changes were made in the life of the Cossack army in the Orenburg region, important steps were taken to improve the ecological condition of the Orenburg region. 
Perovsky was one of the most educated people of Russia. He knew several foreign languages, he loved poetry, music. When it opened a second parish school in the city, a rich library appeared in the provincial office. Perovsky's contemporaries, arriving from the capital in Orenburg, were struck by the high intellectual level of his surroundings, the Orenburg high society. 
The name of Perovsky was known to Russia, he was friends with N.V. Gogol and V.A. Zhukovsky, was close to NM Karamzin and P.A. Vyazemsky. A.S. Pushkin called him a "dear friend"; he was appreciated by politicians, writers, architects and artists; Europe has heard about it, F. Engels wrote about it. His personality attracted Lev Tolstoy, Grigory Danilevsky, Nikolai Anov, Valentin Pikul. 
As a state man, Perovsky was naturally a conductor of the colonial policy of Russia in the East, but his actions helped to strengthen the borders of Russia, prevented the strengthening of the British in these areas, suppressed arbitrariness towards the Russian people captured in Central Asia. 
Since 1843, Perovsky was a member of the Senate and returned to the Orenburg province in 1851.
In the second gubernatorial term, he was engaged in the implementation of previously conceived plans: numerous fortifications were built in the steppe, the Aral Sea was explored and a steamship communication was established on it, the Akand Mosque of Kokanda was taken by assault, and the Khiva Khan was profitable for Russia. In addition to the Order of St. George, 4 degrees, the merits of Perovsky were awarded the Orders of Saint Apostle Andrew the First-Called, Saint Vladimir of 1, 2, 3 and 4 degrees, Saint Anna of 1 and 2 degrees, White Eagle, St. Alexander Nevsky and others.

Perovsky's seething activity was interrupted early. Already in 1851, he felt unwell. Doctors predicted to him only a year of life, but he lived another six years.

He died in the Crimea in Alupka. He was buried in the Balaklava St. George Monastery of the Sevastopol city government in the Exaltation of the Church.

Unfortunately, the traces of the tombstone and the grave have not been preserved, but thanks to archival research conducted by the Orenburg scientist Sergey Kolychev, it can be concluded that the burial itself has remained intact. They, together with colleagues from the scientific institutions of the Crimea, the clergy and the military, developed a plan of measures to perpetuate the burial place of V.A. Perovsky. 
Cape northwest of Cape Menshikov on the southeast end of the southern island of Novaya Zemlya. Named by P.K. Pakhtusov in 1833.

 

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