Posiet Konstantin Nikolaevich 
(19.12.1819–26.04.1899)


Outstanding Russian navigator, statesman, admiral. 
Born in Pernov (Pärnu). His ancestor, the French nobleman Posiet de Rossier, at the invitation of Peter I, came to Russia from France and worked for many years on the cultivation of vineyards near Astrakhan. Posyet's father graduated from the Marine Corps and became the first commander of the 1st Finnish naval crew. Posyet also chose the sea path, becoming a midshipman at the age of 11. In 1836 he graduated with honors from the Naval Cadet Corps and was left to continue his studies in the officer class. While studying, a young sailor sailed in the Baltic Sea on various vessels. In 1840, after completing his studies, Poset was promoted to lieutenant, participated in hydrographic work in the Gulf of Finland, served on the White and Baltic Seas, and made a trip from Arkhangelsk to Kronstadt on the ship Tvertsa. After sailing to England, he was promoted to lieutenant commander. 
From a young age, Posiete showed not only commanding abilities, but also a clear tendency towards scientific activity. He chose naval artillery as a specialty and combined his duties on ships with an in-depth study of military affairs. At 28 years he published the book Artillerie-Exercitium (Artillery Training), which contained information on the practical organization of artillery service on foreign ships. Thanks to this book, the artillery power of the Russian military courts was increased, which immediately affected the success of Russia's military operations off the coast of the Caucasus. Posyet was awarded the cross of the Caucasian War participant for the fact that "the naval artillery improved by his works rendered great assistance in the landing of landings and the battles off the coast of the Caucasus". In 1849 he published his second book entitled "The Armament of Military Courts". The significance of this work for the theory of the development of the sea power of the Russian fleet is evidenced by its reprint in 1851 and the award of the author of the Demidov Prize of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1861. Posiet himself used his theoretical developments on the ships entrusted to him. 
In 1852 a gifted sailor, who was fluent in foreign languages, was included as an officer on special assignments in the military mission that was sent to Japan on the frigate Pallada to conclude a trade agreement. The head of the mission, Vice-Admiral E. V. Putiatin, noted Posyet’s abilities as early as his studies in the cadet corps. 
Swimming 1852-1854 from Kronstadt to Japan was Posiet's first voyage around the world. I.A. Goncharov, who was on the frigate as a passenger, in his book devoted Posyet many pages. 
As a senior translator, Posiet participated in all negotiations, preparing the conclusion of a peace treaty. In addition to the diplomatic mission, the frigate “Pallada” carried out hydrographic surveys of the coast of Korea and Primorye, in the bay, which later received the name K.N. Posiet. 
Posyot reflected his impressions of the expedition in the book “Letters from a Round-the-World Journey” published in the “Sea Collection” and “Domestic Notes”. For participation in the mission on the frigate "Pallas" Posiet received a diamond ring from the hand of the emperor. 
In 1854–1855 Posiet on the frigate "Diana" once again visited Japan, and in 1856 he was commissioned to transfer the schooner "Hed" to the Japanese government as a token of gratitude for the assistance rendered to the sailors from the frigate "Diana". 
In 1858  in the rank of captain of the 1st rank, the honored sailor became the tutor of Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich, son of Emperor Alexander II. A highly educated professional, traveler, a member of the famous voyage to Japan, Posiet for many years became a teacher and mentor of the future General-Admiral of the Russian Navy. Commanding a squadron, showing the pupil the world and teaching him naval professions, he made voyages on the Baltic Sea and off the coast of Russia, to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In 1870  Posyet led the expedition to Novaya Zemlya, where he first set up the Russian flag, and in 1871, he visited America, Canada, Singapore, China, Japan, and Eastern Siberia on the frigate Svetlana. This voyage ended the sea formation of the Grand Duke, to which, before his majority in 1874, Posyet was appointed trustee. 
In 1870–1871 Posyet was a member of the commission for organizing a Russian expedition to the northern seas. He headed the commission P.A. Kropotkin, members of it, except Posyet, were A.I. Voeikov, M.A. Rykachev, N.G. Schilling, F.B. Schmidt and F.F. Yarzhinsky. Agreeing with the conclusion of the commission on the need to study the northern Russian seas, Posyet expressed a special opinion, the essence of which consisted in the first study of the sea between the Kola Peninsula and Novaya Zemlya. He stressed the significantly worse state of Russian crafts compared to the Norwegian. “The reason is that the Norwegians studied their waters, but we did not. If we had studied, when concluding a treaty with Norway in 1826, we would not have given them bays rich in fish”.  
In 1874, with the rank of admiral of the Russian Navy, Posyet completed military service: the emperor appointed him Minister of Railways. In this post, Pociet drove all of Russia far and wide, developing vigorous and useful activities. He organized parties that took up the description and improvement of rivers, started shipping inspection, established gauging stations, meteorological stations, undertook ambitious work in the interests of coastal navigation, arranged the Syassky, Svirsky and Mariinsky canals, opened the Sea Canal in St. Petersburg, made many harbors gauges and rivers, for the first time organized transportation of bulk oil. Posyet had a huge impact on the arrangement of seaports in St. Petersburg, Novorossiysk, Feodosia. Deepening the mouth of the Volga allowed the maritime vessels to enter Astrakhan. Railways, instead of departmental circulars, began to be guided by a unified Railway Charter, it was the beginning of the settlement of tariffs for railways. When Posiet built more than 9 thousand miles - more than a third of all railways of Russia at that time. Posyet headed the commission to develop the national flag of Russia, the flag of the Ministry of Railways, was the founder of 30 railway schools, the organizer of the design and construction of the Eastern and Trans-Siberian highways. A professional naval officer, who personally survived a shipwreck in 1868 on the frigate Alexander Nevsky, Poset organized a complete network of rescue posts on the rivers and lakes of Russia. He participated in the creation of the Russian Shipwreck Assistance Society, later renamed the Imperial Russian Society for Water Rescue. Posyet was his first chairman. 
In 1866 he was given the rank of Adjutant General, and in January 1882 - admiral. 
In 1888, he resigned from the post of Minister of Railways, who held 14 years and became a member of the Council of State.

Posyet's merits are marked by the Russian orders of St. Andrew the First-Called, St. Vladimir of 1 degree, St. Alexander Nevsky with diamond jewelery, White Eagle, St. Anna of 1 degree, St. Stanislav 1 degree and foreign orders of the Prussian Crown of the 2nd degree with a star, Friedrich 1st class with a star, Ludwig with a star, theTower and the sword (Portugal), Danebrog large cross (Denmark), Medgidia 1st degree (Turkey), Savior of the Commander's Cross (Greece),  Leo and the Sun (Persia), Christ of the 1st degree (Brazil), the Red Eagle of the Great Cross, Prince Daniel I of the 1st degree (Montenegro), the Rising Sun of the 1st degree (Japan). 
Posyet was one of the most famous and beloved statesmen of Russia, who left an outstanding mark in its history. 
Posyet bequeathed to the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) a large number of exhibits from various countries of the world that he visited. 10 thousand rubles were left for the students of the Naval Cadet Corps, who graduated Posyet in due time, and the library of 20 thousand volumes became the property of Petersburg University of Communications. The farewell ceremony with Posyet took place in the house of 50-b on Sadovaya Street, in the building of the Board of the Russian Society for Water Rescue, which he chaired in 1872–88. Behind his coffin there was a many thousand mourning procession. At the Novodevichy cemetery, where his wife and sister are also buried, a cross made of black marble was erected. 
Island in the Barents Sea. The original name is Mogilniy. In October 1902  at the request of the Russian Society for Water Rescue in connection with the installation of the rescue station named after the late K.N. Posyet and his wife, the island with the consent of the king was renamed. 
Cape on Rykachev Island in Middendorf Bay. Named  by Russian Polar Expedition in 1900.

 

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