Reineke Mikhail Frantsevich 

Vice-Admiral, Corresponding Member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (since 1856), Director of the Hydrographic Department (1855-1859).Reineke is one of the outstanding Russian explorers of the seas, to whose study he devoted his whole life. 
Born in Livonia on the ancestral manor Reineke in a large family, where he was the seventh child. His father had a military education, fought with the Turks, was seriously wounded. After resigning from the army, he served for many years in fairly large civilian posts in Siberia and Kamchatka. 
At the age of 11  the boy was given to a private boarding house in Petersburg, in 1814 he entered the Naval Cadet Corps. Nikolay Bestuzhev and Pavel Nakhimov became his lifelong friends. 
At the final exams in terms of academic success, Reyneke took the third place out of 75 graduates, and in the next 10 days exams for the production of midshipman — also the third of 109 cadets. The next three years he spent in Kronstadt adjutant to the commander of the fleet crew. 
In 1818–1823 midshipman sailed to the shores of France, made the transition from Arkhangelsk to Kronstadt and back. In 1824, already a lieutenant, participated in an expedition that was working on the inventory of the north-eastern part of the White Sea. From this period begins his close contact with F.P. Litke. In 1825  Litke proposed to the Admiralty Department the candidacy of Reineke for the position of head of the Lapland expedition, which was to conduct a new detailed inventory of the Kola Bay and its adjacent regions. Litke knew that he was handing the business that he had begun into reliable hands. 
In 1826 Reineke was approved in this position. During one navigation under his leadership, the expedition completed its task. A detailed survey of the Murmansk coast from the mouth of the Kola to the border with Norway, Kildin Island, Kola Bay, Peninsula Rybachy. The writings of Reineke relied on 13 astronomical sites and were very accurate. In addition to the production of hydrographic works, Reineke collected extensive information on the history of the industries and navigation of the inhabitants of the Kola Peninsula and the Russian Pomerania. The Lapland expedition, which brought a wealth of geographic information, was a prologue to many years of research of Reynard in the White Sea. 
In 1827  at the suggestion of  I.F. Krusenstern Reineke was appointed head of the White Sea Expedition. From that moment until 1832 he made six voyages in the White Sea.The expedition headed by him completed an inventory of the coast and islands of the White Sea, as well as the mouth of the Northern Dvina, producing it at the first-class level at that time. For a whole century, the works of Reineke were the best navigation tool for navigation in the White Sea and off the coast of the Kola Peninsula.Hydrographic, astronomical and meteorological observations were accompanied by magnetic measurements, the results of which five years later were published by academician A.Ya. Kupfer in his capital summary of geophysical measurements made in Russia. In 1830, the first book of Reineck himself was published - “Description of the City of Cola in Russian Lapland”, and after three years - “The Atlas of the White Sea”. 
In 1833  Reyneke was given a new task - research in the Baltic Sea. In the capacity of chief of hydrographic expeditions, he described the Baltic Sea until 1852. Every year, from May to October, he spent aboard a hydrographic vessel, and devoted autumn and winter to scientific work and coastal affairs. Since 1850, the state of health did not allow him to be on the ships for long. 
In 1840  Reineke was promoted to the rank of captain of the 1st rank, in 1849 - Major General, in 1855 - Vice Admiral. In the same year, he was appointed head of the Hydrographic Department and Chairman of the Scientific Committee of the Maritime Office. In the short term of management of the department, Reineck managed to implement a number of measures to improve the work of the hydrographic service. This concerned both the improvement of cartographic and publishing activities, and the conduct of hydrographic observations. 

Scientific achievements of Reineke were marked by his election in 1845 as a full member of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, in 1851 he, the twelfth of sailors, was awarded the Demidov Prize for capital works on the Russian North, and in 1856 was elected a corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in astronomy, geography and navigation. Department of Physical and Mathematical Sciences.Among the state awards of Reyneke are the Orders of St. Anne, 1 and 3 degrees, St. George, 4 degrees, St. Vladimir, 3 degrees, St. Stanislav, 1 degree. 
His health was undermined by constant voyages on small craft. At the insistence of friends, he went abroad for medical treatment, but neither the healing waters nor the doctors could help him. He died in Frankfurt am Main and is buried in the local cemetery. 
Bay in the south of the southern island of Novaya Zemlya. Partially described and named in 1833 by P.K. 


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