Reineke Mikhail Frantsevich
Corresponding Member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences
(since 1856), Director of the Hydrographic Department
(1855-1859).Reineke is one of the outstanding Russian explorers of
the seas, to whose study he devoted his whole life.
Born in Livonia on the ancestral manor Reineke in a large family,
where he was the seventh child. His
father had a military education, fought with the Turks, was
seriously wounded. After
resigning from the army, he served for many years in fairly large
civilian posts in Siberia and Kamchatka.
At the age of 11 the boy was given to a private boarding house
in Petersburg, in 1814 he entered the Naval Cadet Corps. Nikolay
Bestuzhev and Pavel Nakhimov became his lifelong friends.
At the final exams in terms of academic success, Reyneke took the
third place out of 75 graduates, and in the next 10 days exams for
the production of midshipman — also the third of 109 cadets. The
next three years he spent in Kronstadt adjutant to the commander of
the fleet crew.
In 1818–1823 midshipman
sailed to the shores of France, made the transition from Arkhangelsk
to Kronstadt and back. In
1824, already a lieutenant, participated in an expedition that was
working on the inventory of the north-eastern part of the White Sea. From
this period begins his close contact with
F.P. Litke. In
1825 Litke proposed to the Admiralty Department the candidacy of
Reineke for the position of head of the Lapland expedition, which
was to conduct a new detailed inventory of the Kola Bay and its
adjacent regions. Litke
knew that he was handing the business that he had begun into
In 1826 Reineke was approved in this position. During
one navigation under his leadership, the expedition completed its
detailed survey of the Murmansk coast from the mouth of the Kola to
the border with Norway, Kildin Island,
Kola Bay, Peninsula Rybachy. The
writings of Reineke relied on 13 astronomical sites and were very
addition to the production of hydrographic works, Reineke collected
extensive information on the history of the industries and
navigation of the inhabitants of the Kola Peninsula and the Russian
Lapland expedition, which brought a wealth of geographic
information, was a prologue to many years of research of Reynard in
the White Sea.
In 1827 at the suggestion of
I.F. Krusenstern Reineke
was appointed head of the White Sea Expedition. From
that moment until 1832 he made six voyages in the White Sea.The
expedition headed by him completed an inventory of the coast and
islands of the White Sea, as well as the mouth of the Northern
Dvina, producing it at the first-class level at that time. For
a whole century, the works of Reineke were the best navigation tool
for navigation in the White Sea and off the coast of the Kola
Peninsula.Hydrographic, astronomical and meteorological observations
were accompanied by magnetic measurements, the results of which five
years later were published by academician A.Ya. Kupfer in
his capital summary of geophysical measurements made in Russia. In
1830, the first book of Reineck himself was published - “Description
of the City of Cola in Russian Lapland”, and after three years -
“The Atlas of the White Sea”.
In 1833 Reyneke was given a new task - research in the Baltic
the capacity of chief of hydrographic expeditions, he described the
Baltic Sea until 1852. Every
year, from May to October, he spent aboard a hydrographic vessel,
and devoted autumn and winter to scientific work and coastal
1850, the state of health did not allow him to be on the ships for
In 1840 Reineke was promoted to the rank of captain of the 1st
rank, in 1849 - Major General, in 1855 - Vice Admiral. In
the same year, he was appointed head of the Hydrographic Department
and Chairman of the Scientific Committee of the Maritime Office. In
the short term of management of the department, Reineck managed to
implement a number of measures to improve the work of the
hydrographic service. This
concerned both the improvement of cartographic and publishing
activities, and the conduct of hydrographic observations.
Scientific achievements of
Reineke were marked by his
election in 1845 as a full member of the
Imperial Russian Geographical Society, in 1851 he, the
twelfth of sailors, was awarded the Demidov Prize for capital works
on the Russian North, and in 1856 was elected a corresponding member
of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in astronomy, geography
and navigation. Department of Physical and Mathematical Sciences.Among
the state awards of Reyneke are the Orders of St. Anne, 1 and 3 degrees, St.
George, 4 degrees, St.
Vladimir, 3 degrees, St.
Stanislav, 1 degree.
His health was undermined by constant voyages on small craft. At
the insistence of friends, he went abroad for medical treatment, but
neither the healing waters nor the doctors could help him. He
died in Frankfurt am Main and is buried in the local cemetery.
the south of the southern island of Novaya Zemlya. Partially
described and named in 1833 by P.K. Pakhtusov.