Repin Ilya Efimovich
outstanding Russian artist, master of portraits, historical and
Born in Chuguev Kharkiv Governorate, the family of a military
literacy and arithmetic learned from the sexton and deacon. At
the age of 11, he studied at a topographic school for some time, but
it closed due to the abolition of military settlements. From
the age of 13 he studied painting in Chuguev under I. Bunakov.
In 1863 Repin entered the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg. Here
he met with I.N. Kramskoy,
who became his chief mentor. For
his thesis, the painting "Jov
and His Friends" in 1869 was awarded a small gold medal.
In 1870 Repin made a creative journey along the Volga, where he
wrote a number of sketches and sketches; the
apotheosis of this journey was one of his famous paintings Barge
Haulers on the Volga, which he graduated in 1873.
One of the first paintings by Repin, which received wide
recognition, was a large group portrait of Slavic composers,
commissioned by businessman A.A. Porokhovshchikov. In
1872 he received the Grand Gold Medal and the right to 6 years of
study in Italy and France for the program work “Resurrection
of the Daughter of Jairus”, where he completed an art education. The
result of this period were the paintings of the 'Paris Cafe”and “Sadko”.
Upon returning to Russia in 1876, Repin first settled in his
native Chuguev, and a year later he moved to Moscow. In
1878, he began work on the painting "Zaporozhye
Cossacks write the answer to the Turkish Sultan". This
work lasted more than 10 years and was completed only in 1891. The
picture has 3 lists (not counting etudes). The
first Repin presented to a friend, historian Dmitry Yavornitsky, and
that to Pavel Tretyakov. Most
of the models for him are taken from Yekaterinoslav Province (the
clerk is Yavornitsky, Ivan Sirko is Kiev Governor General Mikhail
Dragomirov, the Cossack wounded in the head is artist Nikolai
Kuznetsov; the military judge in a black hat is Vasily Tarnovsky;
the young Cossack in a round hat is his son George Alekseev, the
owner of a vast bald spot, the leader of the nobility of the
Yekaterinoslav province, the chief commander of the court of His
Majesty, the honorary citizen of Yekaterinoslav and a passionate
numismatist. As he refused to pose from the back of his head, moose
go to the trick. Yavornytsky invited him to see his collection, and
sneaking behind the seated artist, and as long as the leader admired
coins Repin quickly sketched portrait. Alekseev found themselves
already in the Tretyakov Gallery and the offense.
The second version of the painting (1880–91) is kept in the
Russian Museum in St. Petersburg. Who
posed for him is unclear. The
third option (1893) - in the Kharkov Art Museum. It
is inferior in size to the original.
In 1882 Repin moved to St. Petersburg, where he became an active
participant in the "Association of the Wanderers", whom he joined in
1874, and in fact one of the leaders of the Russian realistic school
of painting. At
the exhibitions of the partnership, his paintings “The
Regent Sofya Alekseevna in the Monastery”, “The
Religious Procession in the Kursk Province”, “Not
the Terrible and His Son Ivan” appeared consistently. During
this period, he also distinguished himself as an outstanding
portrait painter, creating portraits of Franz Liszt and Mikhail
Glinka P.A. Strepetova,
V.M.Garshina, V. V.
Samoilova, M.S. Shchepkina,
Baroness Ikskul and many others.
In 1893, Repin became a full member of the Petersburg Academy of
Arts, in 1894–1907. he
is a professor-head of the workshop, and in 1898–9999. served
Memorial plaque. Petersburg,
3-5 Repin Square
Bust in Rumyantsevsky garden. Petersburg,
VO, University Embankment.
In 1901 by order of the government Repin set about creating a
grand canvas, dedicated to the ceremonial meeting of the State
Council on the day of its centenary. It
depicts more than eighty people - dignitaries of the State Council,
headed by the king and members of the royal house. The
work, which was attended by BM. Kustodiev
and I.S. Kulikov,
was completed in two years.
In 1899 Repin again married and bought land in the name of his
wife in the village of Kuokkala in Finland, on which he built a
manor and called it “Penates”. There
he spent the last thirty years of his life. The
village of Kuokkala (now Repino) after the October Revolution was
abroad as part of independent Finland.
Repin was very fond of this country, calling Helsingfors a piece
of Paris. He
was acquainted with many figures of Finnish culture. In
1919, Repin donated to the Society of Finnish Artists his collection
of 23 works by Russian artists and seven of his own, from which the
Repin Athenaeum collection began. In
1920, Finnish artists chose him as an honorary member of the Society
of Artists of Finland.
Repin is also known as an excellent memoirist, the author of a
number of essays that made up the Distant Close Book of Memories. He
paid much attention to pedagogical work: among his students B.М. Kustodiev,
he gave private lessons to V.A. Serovu.
Repin negatively treated the royal ranks, however, after the
revolution he refused to return to the USSR. In
private letters he argued that while the Bolsheviks were in power,
he did not want to have anything in common with Russia. The
artist’s canvases that have never been exhibited in the USSR, for
example, “Bolsheviks (Red Army soldier taking bread from a child)”,
are a kind of response to emissaries from the country of the Soviets
- a picture clearly explaining Repin’s attitude to Soviet power. In
recent years Repin has created a number of paintings on religious
After Repin's death in the 1930s his real cult began in the
artist's works were called samples of socialist realism, the name of
Repin was on a par with the names of Tolstoy, Mussorgsky and
He died Kuokkala, where he was buried in
his favorite garden near the house.
the south Yermolov
Bay on the Kara coast of the northern island of New Earth. The
name was given in 1901-1902
Zemlya expedition of artist A.A. Borisov.