Outstanding English naturalist, doctor, arctic explorer.
Born in Dumfries, his father was the mayor of this city.
He graduated from high school in his hometown and in 1801 entered
the medical department of the University of Edinburgh.
Upon graduation in 1807, he began serving as an assistant surgeon
in the Navy.
He participated in the siege of Copenhagen, served off the coast
of Spain and Portugal, became an active surgeon on the 74-gun
In 1816 Richardson received his MD degree from the University of
In 1819 its Arctic activities began.
As a naturalist and surgeon, he took part in the ground
expedition of J.
Franklin, who was ordered to leave the south on the coast of the
Arctic Ocean near the mouth of the Copper River and move along it to
the east to meet with
W. Parry’s sea unit from the sea of baffin.
Expedition proceeded extremely hard.
On May 23 they left England and on August 30, 1819 arrived at
theYork factory on the shore of the Hudson Bay.
Only on July 18, 1821 after two severe winterings, the
expedition reached the starting point of its research - the
mouth of the
On fragile canoes travelers moved east.
Swimming continued until August 18, when, in the conditions of
the approaching winter, Franklin ordered to turn back.
The return trip was the hardest stage of the whole expedition.
They reached the mouth of the
canoe, which was later named after a member of the expedition of
junior officer Hood, climbed it to the waterfall and walked across
the pass to the valley of the Copper Mine River.
Food has come to an end, a terrible famine began.
Ate disgusting taste and unhealthy lichen.
September 10 managed to kill the female musk ox.
The contents of her stomach and intestines were eaten in place,
and to everyone, even the most discriminating, this dish seemed
Discipline weakened, people fell behind.
The crossing of Mednorudnaya took a lot of time and effort, as
the canoes were thrown by porters.
Franklin sent forward two people with his strongest aide,
They were to reach the
and inform the Indians about the status of the expedition.
The expedition was divided into small groups, moving
At the fort, the Enterprise found neither Indians nor foodstuffs;
they found only a note from Buck, in which he reported that he had
moved to the
Providence, but he very much doubts what will come.
Gradually lagged behind.
They fed on deer skins, bones, and lichens abandoned at the
beginning of the hike.
Richardson went along with junior officer Hood and sailor Hepburn
After some time, they were joined by Michel, who had lagged
behind earlier, and two Canadian porters.
The arrival of an experienced hunter, Michel, encouraged the
sailors, but soon his behavior seemed strange to them.
After some time, as it turned out, Michel shot one after the
other guides and ate their meat.
Then he killed Hood by simulating an accident.
Richardson realized that he and Hepburn would most likely face
the same fate, and killed Michel with a pistol shot to the head.
So sounded version of what happened in the report of Richardson
and then Franklin.
She was unconditionally accepted by contemporaries, but in the XX
century, some researchers have refuted it, putting forward an
opinion on the criminal behavior of Richardson.
Nevertheless, no irrefutable evidence was given, and it is hardly
island in Coronation Bay is named
Salvation in the face of three Indians came on November 7th.
It turns out that the brave Buck still got to the fort
Having strengthened, the travelers moved on and on December 11
they arrived at the fort Providence.
After wintering on July 14 the expedition gathered at the
trading post York, from which it left to the north three years ago.
In total, during this time 5550 miles has been overcome.
England did not leave attempts to open the Northwest Passage.
In 1825 a new expedition began, consisting of three detachments:
a naval commander under Parry’s command, moving from the Baffin Sea
to the west, a naval command under
F. Beachy, moving
from the Bering Strait to the east, and a ground mission led by
Franklin, which, as in the last time was to come from the south to
the coast of the ocean.
All three groups planned to meet at any point, which should have
meant the opening of the passage.
Richardson, like Buck, again accompanied Franklin.
It should be said that Franklin fully took into account the
experience of the previous expedition, so that this time everything
went much more successfully.
The plan was to descend along the Mackenzie River to the mouth
and further, dividing into two units, moving west and east along the
We set off from Liverpool to New York on February 16, 1825, at
the end of July we reached the
Great Slave Lake,
from which Mackenzie flows, and on August 7 we reached
Great Bear Lake,
where we stood for the winter.
Until the end of winter, we had three routes.
Richardson explored the north shore of the lake.
Wintering was successful.
In the twentieth of June, 1826, they marched north.
As planned, reaching the mouth of the Mackenzie, divided:
Franklin and Buck on the boat "Lion" went west towards Beechy, and
Richardson on two boats "Dolphin" and "Union" east towards Parry.
Due to the favorable ice conditions, the advance of Richardson
The sea was ice-free almost to the mouth of the Copper River.
One of Richardson's bays, deeply plunging into the continent, was
named after Franklin.
In the north, travelers saw a large island, named after them in
honor of the famous English naturalist Dr. Wallace.
It was later proved that this is the peninsula of
Having passed the mouth of Mednorudnaya, they reached
Here Richardson considered his task accomplished and on August 6
Along the unknown coast of the Arctic Ocean, they traveled 900
After wintering at Fort Franklin, the expedition arrived in New
York in August 1827, and in London on September 29.
Having made a number of interesting geographical discoveries, the
Parry – Franklin – Beachey expedition did not fulfill its main task.
The meeting in the Arctic did not take place.
In 1829, Richardson published the first part of his scientific
work on the fauna of northern British America, where he described
the collections he collected on an expedition.
Richardson rose through the ranks, becoming in 1838 a doctor of
the flotilla, in 1840 - an inspector of hospitals.
In 1846 he was given a noble title.
Richardson's next meeting with the Arctic took place in 1848.
The grandiose, which lasted for more than a decade, began an epic
of searching for the missing Franklin expedition, which in 1845 set
out on two ships, the Terror and Erebus, with the aim of opening the
In 1848, three detachments were sent to search:
James Ross Marine
from the east into
the Lancaster Strait, Captain
G. Kellett and
Commodore Moore from the Bering Strait and Richardson above the
ground, who were ordered to explore the coast between the
mouths of the
Mackenzie and Mednorudnaya, and the southern coast
of Victoria Island.
The expedition scheme of 1848 completely coincided with the
scheme of the Parry – Franklin – Beachey expedition of 1824–1828.
Richardson began preparing for his march before the decision of
It was this forethought that allowed the expedition to be well
organized and to perform without delays.
He managed to negotiate with the all-powerful Hudson’s company
for the supply of boats and food.
An expedition of 42 people set off from Liverpool on March 25,
Richardson's assistant was
Already on July 31, they reached the mouth of the Mackenzie, left
a food warehouse there, and moved to the east by boat.
Friendly Eskimos did not hear anything about Franklin's
The ice to the east was getting harder.
Even before entering
the Dolphin and
Union Strait, travelers were forced to start moving along the
It was not possible to cross over to Victoria Island - a strong
current carried heavy ice in the strait.
Moved very slowly, the forces melted.
Reaching the cape of Kruzenshtern, they entered the mouth of the
Mednorudnaya, and from there went to Great Bear Lake, where they
stood for the winter in a prepared residential house.
May 7, 1849, transferring the command of Ray, Richardson went to
England, where he arrived on November 6.
In 1851, Richardson published a book about his expedition, which
in addition to the hiking journal contains a large amount of
information about the geology, geography, fauna and flora of the
northern part of the Americas.
Much attention is paid in it to the manners and customs of the
From the time of his retirement in 1855 and until his sudden
death, Richardson devoted himself entirely to scientific activities,
the management of the museum, the publication of numerous articles
He died in Grasmere 10 years after he moved there, retiring.
He was buried in the
Islands in the
Coronation Bay between the North American mainland and Victoria
Mountains in northwestern
Named in 1826 by J. Franklin.
Cape northeast of Ellesmere
Cape in the Simpson Strait
between the mainland and King William Island in the Canadian Arctic
Cape on the west coast of the
Melville Peninsula in Commie Bay.
Cape in the east of Melville Island
in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
- Richardson) in the east of the island of Ellesmere in the
A bay in the west of Coronation Bay
on the north coast of Canada.
River flowing into the
It was opened by the detachment of J. Richardson in 1826.