Rykachev Mikhail Aleksandrovich
Meteorologist, Academician, Director of the State Certification
Institute, Chairman of the Aeronautical Department of the Russian
Born in the village of Nikolaev, Yaroslavl Province, in the
family of a naval officer.
Rykachev received his primary education at home.
At the age of 14 he entered the Naval Cadet Corps, and then the
Naval Academy, after which in 1865 he was sent on a foreign trip to
get acquainted with the activities of meteorological and magnetic
observatories in England, France and Germany.
After returning to Petersburg in 1867, Rykachev, who showed
himself from the best side, became an employee of the Main Physical
Observatory headed at the same time offered him the post of
Their fruitful cooperation lasted for 27 years.
During this period, they managed to transform the system of
meteorological and magnetic observations in Russia, significantly
increase the number of observatories, and lay the foundations of the
Russian weather service.
With the active participation of Wild and Rykachev, a magnetic
and meteorological observatory was created in Pavlovsk, which soon
became exemplary in Europe.
Great is the role of Wild and Rykachev in the organization and
conduct of the I International Polar Year.
In the 1870s, Rykachev was a member of the commission of the
Imperial Russian Geographical Society to develop a plan for studying
the northern seas of Russia.
He formulated and introduced into practice the basic principles
of the weather service for the northern seas.
When forecasting weather in the Far North and in the adjacent
regions, Rykachev attached special importance to “accurate and
competent knowledge of the size and condition of the floating ice at
any given time”.
Carrying out a huge amount of organizational and administrative
work, especially during his service as director of the Main Physical
Observatory after Wild retired in 1895, Rykachev did not cease
active scientific activities.
His own scientific studies are devoted to meteorology,
terrestrial magnetism, physical geography, aeronautics.
Rykachev made a series of flights on a balloon to study the free
On his initiative, the Russian aeronautics, together with the
Main Physical Observatory, began to conduct observations on the
shape and movement of clouds, which had an important practical
outlet for meteorology.
In 1877, for his work “Types of Cyclone Paths in Europe”,
Rykachev was awarded by the
Imperial Russian Geographical Society by
Count F. P.
and in 1895 - the highest award of the Imperial Russian Geographical
Society - the
The age and health undermined by overworked labor forced Rykachev
to leave the post of director of the observatory in 1913, which was
greatly perceived by geophysicists of Russia and the whole world.The
International Meteorological Committee, geophysical institutions and
universities of many countries expressed deep gratitude to him for
his dedicated and fruitful service to science.
After retiring from the post of director, Rykachev did not stop
active scientific activities.
During this period, he published a monograph on the causes and
consequences of the catastrophic floods of 1908, which brought many
troubles to Russia, and took an active part in the work of the
Commission for the Study of the Productive Forces of Russia.
Rykachev met the revolution very cool.
He died in Petersburg and is buried in the
cemetery: a granite stela.
An island in Middendorf Bay near
the coast of Khariton Laptev.
the Russian Polar Expedition of E. V. Toll in 1900.
Mountains on the east coast
of the island of West Spitsbergen.
Named in 1899–1901 by expedition "degree measurement".
Glacier on the west coast of
the northern island of Novaya Zemlya.
Named in 1913 by