Rozmyslov Fedor

Navigator-lieutenant, the first hydrograph of the Novaya Zemlya.
There is very little data about Rozmyslov’s life course. It is not known when and where he was born, who his parents were. In his record of service, published in 1885, it is noted only that in 1740 he entered the Naval Academy as a student, in 1744-1756. sailed annually in the Baltic Sea, made 4 trips from Kronstadt to Arkhangelsk and back. In 1747  he was promoted to sub-navigator, in 1749 - to the navigator of the non-commissioned officer rank, and in 1760 - to the navigator of the sub-rank.
In 1768  Rozmyslov was instructed to describe the shores of the New Earth and the Kara Sea. Up to this point, all previous Russian travels to Novaya Zemlya were aimed exclusively at fishing. No surveys of the coast were carried out; voyages were performed by simple feeding men, most of them illiterate people. One of such feeds, Yakov Chirakin, informed the Arkhangelsk governor that he was in 1766-1767 was on Novaya Zemlya and passed by the strait from the Barents Sea to Kara. He attached a plan and a description of the strait to the statement. These documents were handed over to Rozmyslov, who found that the plan “... for its carelessness cannot be made into action”. The governor, interested in Novaya Zemlya and the possibility of opening the way through the Strait to the Ob indicated by Chirakin, began to trouble in St. Petersburg about permission to organize an expedition to Novaya Zemlya. Permission was granted. In addition, it was possible to connect the merchant Barmin, who became interested in Chirakin’s story about silver, which is located in certain places on the surface. For the purposes of the expedition, a small three-masted ship was built, the Kochmara, with Rozmyslov appointed as commander and leader of the expedition.
The instructions instructed to get to the strait, go through it with the measurement and inventory of the coast, look at the banks “in subtlety, are there any ores and minerals, excellent and unusual stones, crystal and other curious things, salt lakes and the like, and some special keys and waters, pearl shells, and what animals and birds in the waters there, sea animals are found, trees and grasses are excellent and extraordinary, and similar to all sorts of curiosities worthy things and natural products ... Of all things, bring the samples and the number of them ing into the report".  In short, the assigned tasks would be suitable for a complex scientific expedition. In addition, Rozmyslov was instructed to go as far as possible to the Kara Sea, to reach the Ob, and in general, no less and no less, to try to find a way to North America.
In June  they set off from Arkhangelsk to the Murmansk coast, from where, having stocked up with everything necessary, at the very beginning of August they headed for the northeast, to Novaya Zemlya. In those days, many local feeders had a custom to sail to Novaya Zemlya from the Murmansk coast. After a heavy voyage through the turbulent Barents Sea in mid-August, they entered Matochkin Shar and anchored near its western mouth. Rozmyslov engaged in measuring the strait from a boat, and the sub-navigator Gubin (named after the bay and cape in the Matochkin Strait) was a ground inventory of the coast.
After passing through the strait, Rozmyslov saw the Kara Sea free of ice, but the poor seafaring qualities of the Kochmar and the strong flow discovered during the crossing of the Barents Sea kept him from trying to go to the open sea.
Winter was approaching, the weather was stormy, inclement. Continuing measurements and descriptive work, Rozmyslov began preparations for the winter. Divided into two groups of 7 people. The first, headed by him, settled in Belushya Bay on the northern shore of the strait near the eastern mouth, and the second, under Gubin’s command, on Cape Drovyanoy, on the southern shore of the strait, even closer to the Kara Coast.


Ruins of the hut of Rozmyslov at Cape Drovyan in 1881

Wintering was hard. Winter was "... very hard frost, snow and whirling ...". In November  Chirakin died first, and only six out of 14 people survived.
In the first half of June 1769  Rozmyslov went out over the ice to complete the inventory of the strait. Kochmara, freed from ice in mid-July, flowed heavily in many places. I had to pull her ashore. Cutting down rotten places, they were sealed with very original cement: thick clay mixed with rye bran. Some places just caulk. However, after repairing the flow, the Cochmar "did not quite calm down".
On such a vessel, Rozmyslov did go to the Kara Sea. It was possible to depart only 35 miles, then there was solid ice. Decided to return to Matochkin Shar. At the collapsing Kochmar, they hardly reached the western mouth of the strait.
Fortunately, here they met Novozemelsky industrialists A. Ermolin and N. Lodygin and were forced to go to their ship. Motivating his decision, Rozmyslov wrote in a journal: “for it is impossible to start up already on a fragile vessel through the vastness of the sea, which according to the law is sentenced, you can get an unauthorized death and call yourself suicide”. In early September, arrived in Arkhangelsk.
Two years after returning from Novaya Zemlya, Rozmyslov drowned in the Gulf of Finland during the wreck of the ship on which he served.
Rozmyslov’s expedition did not satisfy the organizers with its results. As can be seen from the instructions cited above, the organizers wanted a lot, but life showed the unreality of their demands. Most of them took many decades to complete, and geological studies continue to the present. Rozmyslov described the prol. Matochkin Shar, made his measurements, determined the total length. The conscientiousness of Rozmyslov’s work was confirmed after almost 70 years by P.K. Pakhtusov. By virtue of his competence, Rozmyslov conducted a geological survey of areas adjacent to the strait, finding neither silver nor precious stones, and gave important information about the fauna and flora of Novaya Zemlya and its climatic features.
We can assume that Rozmyslov owes not only the honor of the first hydrograph of Novaya Zemlya, but also the honor of the first researcher of its geological and natural features. From the actions of such selfless Russian people, bit by bit, our current knowledge about the Arctic was formed.
In 1897  two English tourists, Pearson and Feilden, while visiting Novaya Zemlya, stumbled upon the ruins of the Rozmyslov hut on the banks of the hall. Seals Not far from her, they discovered the grave of Chirakin.
Island northeast of the island of Taimyr. The name was given by F. Nansen in 1893.
Valley in the mountains north of the Matochkin Strait. The name was given in 1925 by Commission of the Northern Hydrographic Expedition  under the direction of N.I. Yevgenov.


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