Navigator-lieutenant, the first hydrograph of the Novaya Zemlya.
There is very little data about Rozmyslov’s life course.
It is not known when and where he was born, who his parents were.
In his record of service, published in 1885, it is noted only
that in 1740 he entered the Naval Academy as a student, in
sailed annually in the Baltic Sea, made 4 trips from Kronstadt to
Arkhangelsk and back.
In 1747 he was promoted to sub-navigator, in 1749 - to the
navigator of the non-commissioned officer rank, and in 1760 - to the
navigator of the sub-rank.
In 1768 Rozmyslov was instructed to describe the shores of the
New Earth and the Kara Sea.
Up to this point, all previous Russian travels to Novaya Zemlya
were aimed exclusively at fishing.
No surveys of the coast were carried out; voyages were performed
by simple feeding men, most of them illiterate people.
One of such feeds,
Yakov Chirakin, informed the Arkhangelsk governor that he was in
was on Novaya Zemlya and passed by the strait from the Barents
Sea to Kara.
He attached a plan and a description of the strait to the
These documents were handed over to Rozmyslov, who found that the
plan “... for its carelessness cannot be made into action”.
The governor, interested in Novaya Zemlya and the possibility of
opening the way through the Strait to the Ob indicated by Chirakin,
began to trouble in St. Petersburg about permission to organize an
expedition to Novaya Zemlya.
Permission was granted.
In addition, it was possible to connect the merchant Barmin, who
became interested in Chirakin’s story about silver, which is located
in certain places on the surface.
For the purposes of the expedition, a small three-masted ship was
built, the Kochmara, with Rozmyslov appointed as commander and
leader of the expedition.
The instructions instructed to get to the strait, go through it
with the measurement and inventory of the coast, look at the banks
“in subtlety, are there any ores and minerals, excellent and unusual
stones, crystal and other curious things, salt lakes and the like,
and some special keys and waters, pearl shells, and what animals and
birds in the waters there, sea animals are found, trees and grasses
are excellent and extraordinary, and similar to all sorts of
curiosities worthy things and natural products ... Of all things,
bring the samples and the number of them
ing into the report". In short, the assigned tasks would be suitable for a complex
In addition, Rozmyslov was instructed to go as far as possible to
the Kara Sea, to reach the Ob, and in general, no less and no less,
to try to find a way to North America.
In June they set off from Arkhangelsk to the Murmansk coast,
from where, having stocked up with everything necessary, at the very
beginning of August they headed for the northeast, to Novaya Zemlya.
In those days, many local feeders had a custom to sail to Novaya
Zemlya from the Murmansk coast.
After a heavy voyage through the turbulent Barents Sea in
mid-August, they entered
Matochkin Shar and
anchored near its western mouth.
Rozmyslov engaged in measuring the strait from a boat, and the
sub-navigator Gubin (named after the
bay and cape
in the Matochkin Strait) was a ground inventory of the coast.
After passing through the strait, Rozmyslov saw the Kara Sea free
of ice, but the poor seafaring qualities of the Kochmar and the
strong flow discovered during the crossing of the Barents Sea kept
him from trying to go to the open sea.
Winter was approaching, the weather was stormy, inclement.
Continuing measurements and descriptive work, Rozmyslov began
preparations for the winter.
Divided into two groups of 7 people.
The first, headed by him, settled in
on the northern shore of the strait near the eastern mouth, and the
second, under Gubin’s command, on
on the southern shore of the strait, even closer to the Kara Coast.
Ruins of the hut of Rozmyslov at Cape Drovyan in 1881
Wintering was hard.
Winter was "... very hard frost, snow and whirling ...".
In November Chirakin died first, and only six out of 14 people
In the first half of June 1769 Rozmyslov went out over the ice
to complete the inventory of the strait.
Kochmara, freed from ice in mid-July, flowed heavily in many
I had to pull her ashore.
Cutting down rotten places, they were sealed with very original
cement: thick clay mixed with rye bran.
Some places just caulk.
However, after repairing the flow, the Cochmar "did not quite
On such a vessel, Rozmyslov did go to the Kara Sea.
It was possible to depart only 35 miles, then there was solid
Decided to return to Matochkin Shar.
At the collapsing Kochmar, they hardly reached the western mouth
of the strait.
Fortunately, here they met Novozemelsky industrialists A. Ermolin
and N. Lodygin and were forced to go to their ship.
Motivating his decision, Rozmyslov wrote in a journal: “for it is
impossible to start up already on a fragile vessel through the
vastness of the sea, which according to the law is sentenced, you
can get an unauthorized death and call yourself suicide”.
In early September, arrived in Arkhangelsk.
Two years after returning from Novaya Zemlya, Rozmyslov drowned
in the Gulf of Finland during the wreck of the ship on which he
Rozmyslov’s expedition did not satisfy the organizers with its
As can be seen from the instructions cited above, the organizers
wanted a lot, but life showed the unreality of their demands.
Most of them took many decades to complete, and geological
studies continue to the present.
Rozmyslov described the prol.
Matochkin Shar, made his measurements, determined the total
The conscientiousness of Rozmyslov’s work was confirmed after
almost 70 years by
By virtue of his competence, Rozmyslov conducted a geological
survey of areas adjacent to the strait, finding neither silver nor
precious stones, and gave important information about the fauna and
flora of Novaya Zemlya and its climatic features.
We can assume that Rozmyslov owes not only the honor of the first
hydrograph of Novaya Zemlya, but also the honor of the first
researcher of its geological and natural features.
From the actions of such selfless Russian people, bit by bit, our
current knowledge about the Arctic was formed.
In 1897 two English tourists, Pearson and Feilden, while
visiting Novaya Zemlya, stumbled upon the ruins of the Rozmyslov hut
on the banks of the hall.
Not far from her, they discovered the grave of Chirakin.
Island northeast of the island of
The name was given by
F. Nansen in
Valley in the mountains north of
the Matochkin Strait.
The name was given in 1925 by
Northern Hydrographic Expedition under the
direction of N.I.