English traveler, naturalist, arctic explorer, general.
Born in Dublin, in a family of immigrants from Italy. Sabin
was educated at the Royal Military Colleges in Marlow and Woolwich
and in 1803 he began serving in the artillery corps. His
military career was quite successful: in 1813 he became captain, in
1841 - lieutenant colonel, in 1851 - colonel, in 1859 -
lieutenant-general and retired in 1874 with the rank of general. The
main event of his military service was participation in the campaign
against the United States, during which he commanded a battery in
1814 during the siege of Fort Irie.
However, it was not the military field that made him famous. From
the very first steps of the service, the attention and interests of
Sabin were turned to physical research, especially to the study of
terrestrial magnetism. He
glorified his name not as a military man, but as an outstanding
scientific researcher and traveler.
At the end of the war in 1818, on the recommendation of the
President and the Council of the Royal Geographical Society, Sabin
was included as an astronomer on the expedition of John Ross sent in
search of the Northwest Passage, and the following year with the
same functions on the expedition of W.
During 1821–1822 on
the instructions of the English government, Sabin conducted a series
of pendulum experiments, which were part of studies to determine the
shape of the Earth at several stations in the equatorial regions of
Africa and America. In
1823, he expanded the geographical scope of the experiment,
conducting observations in Greenland, Spitsbergen, in Norway. For
the expedition was allocated one of the ships Parry "Gripper" under
the command of Captain Douglas
East Greenland, in addition to geophysical observations, a survey of
the coast was conducted. Captain
Clavering in the course of a 12-day boat trip mapped a significant
portion of the previously unknown coast, revealing a number of bays,
capes and islands.
In 1825, Sabin, together with John
Herschel, joined the
commission appointed by the British and French governments to
accurately determine the lengths of the Greenwich and Paris
1827, he was engaged in determining the differences in the length of
the pendulums of these observatories.
For many years, Sabin carried out numerous measurements of
terrestrial magnetism, covering almost all regions of the Earth from
the equator to the Arctic. He
regularly reported on their results to the Royal Geographical
Society and the British Association. An
even more important role for science was played by the study of
impetos performed by Sabin.
Under the leadership of Sabin, materials from magnetic studies
conducted by James
Ross in Antarctica,
as well as materials organized by the last magnetic stations on St.
Helena Island and Van Diemen Land were processed.
Sabin became a member of the Geographical Society in 1818, its
vice-president in 1850, remaining on this post until 1871. In
1868 he was inducted into the Commission of Measures and Weights,
was an honorary member and corresponding member of numerous leading
academies and scientific societies in Europe and America, and had
numerous foreign awards, in particular the Prussian Order of Merit.
Entrance to the Sabin family crypt
In 1869, for outstanding scientific discoveries, especially in
the field of terrestrial magnetism, Sabin was awarded the Order
of the Bath.
He died in Istishin, Surrey. He
was buried in
the family crypt in
Land) on the island of Western Spitsbergen south of the Tempel Fjord
An island in
the south of Committi Bay.
Sabine Island in the Greenland Sea
(photo from the Internet)
An island in
the Greenland Sea near the coast of East Greenland.
Opened and named by Captain Clavering in 1823.
A peninsula on
Melville Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Opened
and named in 1853 during R.
Pim Island in Smith Strait between Greenland and Ellesmere Island.
the Mackenzie Bay of the Beaufort Sea.
the north of the Tennent Islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
the southwest of the island Indre
Norskøya to the north of the island of West Spitsbergen.
The mountain is
570 m high east of the Sabina Glacier, the island of Northeastern
Earth, Spitsbergen. Coordinates 80°
in the north of the island of Northeastern Territory Spitsbergen
archipelago and islands (Sabineeaine).
the north of the island Northeastern Land Spitsbergen archipelago.
A cove on
the north coast of Melville Island in the Canadian Arctic