Sibiryakov Alexander Mikhailovich
commercial and industrial figure, capitalist gold producer, one of
the most active supporters of the development of the Northeast
Passage, the Northern Sea Route.
Born in Irkutsk. He
graduated from the Polytechnic in Zurich.
Sibiryakov was a European cultural man. He
was one of the best representatives of the characteristic layer of
the bourgeoisie for Siberia, which “lives by itself and provides
means for carrying out important cultural undertakings concerning
the interests of Siberia, the Motherland”.
Sibiryakov participated in the organization and financing of a
number of polar expeditions. Together
with M.K. Sidorov, he
subsidized the Swedish expedition N.A.-E. Nordenskiöld on
the vessel "Vega" in 1878–1879, which carried out the first through
passage of the Northeast Passage, and a number of other expeditions
through the Kara Sea to the mouths of the Ob and Yenisei. For
his contribution to the organization of this expedition, Sibiryakov
was awarded the Swedish Order “Polar
1879, in order to search for the Nordensheld expedition, he sent his
steamer to the mouth of the Yenisei and gave money to explore the
regions of the Arctic Ocean adjacent to this region.
Earlier, he turned to
Imperial Russian Geographical Society with a proposal to study the waterways
of Siberia, donating 7,000 rubles to this. The
course of the Angara and the watershed of the Ob and Yenisei rivers
was investigated. In
1880, Sibiryakov himself made an attempt to go to the mouth
of the Yenisei through the Kara Sea. His
own steamer "Oscar Dickson" left Norway, passed the Barents
Sea, the Karsky Gates, but met
impassable ice near
the Yavai Peninsula and
was forced to winter. The
following year, in July, the ship was crushed by ice and sank with
all cargo. Gradually,
Sibiryakov’s interest in the Kara Sea Route waned. He
used the idea of K.D. Nosilov on
creating a land route through the Urals. In
1884, Sibiryakov, on the Nordensheld steamer, went to the mouth
of the Pechora, then up river along the river steamer, and then
crossed the Urals on reindeer and along the Tobol River and reached
Tobolsk, thus opening an important trade route, known as the
Sibiryakovsky Highway. on North".Already in 1887–1888 210
thousand poods of various cargoes were transported in this way.
At various times, Sibiryakov donated over 10,000 rubles to the
East-Siberian department of the
Imperial Russian Geographical Society, gave money to publish essays
on the history of Siberia, did a lot to open Tomsk University,
donated 10,000 rubles to the Academy of Sciences for paying original
historical works in Russian about Siberia.
Sibiryakov owns few, but valuable works on various Siberian
repeatedly traveled around Siberia and its outskirts, studying
mainly questions of communication.Many of his ideas and suggestions
were implemented, which made his name very popular in Siberia.
Temple on Vaigach
Island, built with funds from A.M. Sibiryakov
art. A.A. Borisov
A well-known patron of the arts was his younger brother,
Innokentiy Mikhailovich Sibiryakov.
Alexander Mikhailovich did a lot of good and useful things for
his native Irkutsk. He
donated 800 thousand rubles. on
the creation and maintenance of four primary schools named after
(her sister, who died at the age of 22), 50 thousand rubles. -
the establishment of the Higher Technical School, 12 thousand
on the device printing the newspaper "Siberia". Irkutsk
gymnasium, he gave the sculpture MM. Antokolsky
and three landscapes I.K. Aivazovsky,
the public library - many valuable publications in Russian and
foreign languages (including the "Complete Collection of Chronicles"
and "Proceedings of the Geographical Society" for several years). He
gave the city two fire trucks, rebuilt the poor-built shelter for
the poor, created by his father, and helped raise funds for the
construction of a new theater to replace the burned-out one. Sibiryakov
helped a lot of students: he was an honorary member of the Society
for providing benefits to students in Eastern Siberia and a member
of the Society to help students in St. Petersburg Siberians. There
were ten scholarships named after A.M., K.M., I.M. Sibiryakovs
and A.M. Kladischevoy.
Another area of Alexander Mikhailovich's charitable activity is
the construction and improvement of churches. In
Irkutsk, in Craft Sloboda, he built a temple in the name of the icon
of the Kazan Mother of God, preserved to this day; in
Voznesensky monastery he landscaped the main church; donated
land for the construction of the poorhouse for widows and orphans of
the clergy. For
services to the city of Sibiryakov in 1893, he was awarded the title
of honorary citizen of Irkutsk.
Millions of costs have significantly reduced the status of
the beginning of the twentieth century, he retired from active
entrepreneurial activity, transferred the affairs to his son, and
He lived in Nice, Batumi, Paris, Zurich. In
1920, the Swedish consul in Nice sought out Sibiryakov, who lived in
deep poverty. Thanks
to the efforts of the consul and chairman of the Geographical
Society in Stockholm, in 1921 the Swedish government appointed
Sibiryakov a life pension of 3000 kroons annually.
He was awarded the Order of St.
Vladimir of 3 degrees, the Cross of the 1st Class Commander of
of the Polar Star from
the King of Sweden for his help in organizing the Nordenskiöld
Expedition, the palm branch from the French Government for assisting
the DeGe expedition, and the silver
medal of the Russian
Died Sibiryakov in France, in Nice, buried
in the cemetery Kokad.
the Yenisei Gulf. Named
in 1876 by Nordenskiöld.
The bay in
the southwestern part of the Russian Harbor Bay on the Barents Sea
coast of the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. Called
by the expedition on the icebreaker "G. Sedov"